During ultrasonic vibration honing (UVH), a thin hydrodynamic oil film formed can seriously affect the cavitation effect in the grinding fluid, but the mechanism is still unclear now. Based on the hydrodynamics theory, a revised cavitation bubble model with oil film pressure is developed, and it has been calculated by the four-order Runge–Kutta method. The calculation results show that the oil film pressure under UVH is a positive–negative alternant pulse pressure, and it can induce the secondary expansion of the bubble, leading to double microjets during the process of the bubble collapsing. The effects of ultrasonic amplitude, ultrasonic frequency, oil film height, and reciprocation speed of the honing stone on the bubble dynamics are discussed. With the increase of ultrasonic amplitude, the amplitude of the bubble expansion is increased, and the oscillation interval is extended. As increasing normalized oil film height, the variation of the bubble first expansion is slight, while the amplitude of the bubble secondary expansion is reduced and the oscillation interval is also shortened. The main effect of ultrasonic frequency and reciprocation speed of the honing stone on the bubble dynamics is connected with the secondary bubble expansion. The bubble secondary expansion is decreased with the increasing reciprocation speed of the honing stone, ultrasonic frequency, and oil film height. The results of the simulations are consistent with the surface roughness measurements well, which provides a theoretical prediction method of cavitation bubbles control.

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