This study reviews the work performed in the field of reciprocating shaft seals from the advent of the scientific topic in the 1940s. Concepts of leakage, film layers, friction, wear, and other concerns with shaft seals are discussed. The importance of shaft seals as it pertains to liquid springs is brought to light along with issues requiring a need for these seals to withstand high temperatures and high pressures. Issues resulting from a seal exposure to high temperatures, such as thermosetting and embrittlement, are discussed in conjunction with materials and properties that allow seals to operate in high-temperature environments. High-pressure sealing challenges are identified along with the techniques currently employed to overcome these issues, such as fiber reinforcement and backup rings. Sealing solutions have been implemented independently for both high-pressure and high-temperature applications; however, the combination of high pressures coupled with high temperatures is still a challenge today.

References

References
1.
White
,
C.
, and
Denny
,
D.
,
1945
, “The Sealing Mechanism of Flexible Packings,” UK Ministry of Supply, London, MAP Scientific and Technical Memorandum No. 4/45 Interim Report.
2.
White
,
C.
, and
Denny
,
D.
,
1947
, “The Sealing Mechanism of Flexible Packings,” UK Ministry of Supply, London, Scientific and Technical Memorandum No. 3/47.
3.
Denny
,
D.
,
1953
, “The Friction of Rubber Sealing Rings,” British Hydrodynamics Research Association, Harlow, UK, Report No. 458.
4.
Denny
,
D.
,
1953
, “
The Influence of Load and Surface Roughness on the Friction of Rubber-Like Materials
,”
Proc. Phys. Soc., Sect. B
,
66
(
9
), pp.
721
727
.
5.
Denny
,
D.
,
1957
, “
The Lubrication of Fluid Seals
,”
Institution of Mechanical Engineers Conference on Lubrication and Wear
, London, Oct. 1–3, p. 392.
6.
Denny
,
D.
,
1958
, “Leakage and Friction Characteristics of Some Single-Lip U-Seals Fitted to Reciprocating Shafts,” British Hydrodynamics Research Association, Harlow, UK, Report No. RR 595.
7.
Denny
,
D.
,
1959
, “Sealing Characteristics of Multiple-Lip Seals Fitted to Reciprocating Shafts,” British Hydrodynamic Research Association, Harlow, UK, Report No. RR 614.
8.
Denny
,
D.
,
1959
, “
Time Effects in the Static Friction of Lubricated Rubber
,”
Wear
,
2
(
4
), pp.
264
272
.
9.
Denny
,
D.
,
1961
, “
Leakage Characteristics of Rubber Seals Fitted to Reciprocating Shafts
,”
Institution of Mechanical Engineers Symposium on Oil Hydraulic Power Transmission and Control
, London, Nov. 29–30, pp.
259
268
.
10.
Müller
,
H.
,
1964
, “
Leakage and Friction of Flexible Packings at Reciprocating Motion With Special Consideration of Hydrodynamic Film Formation
,” Second
International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, Cranfield, UK, pp.
13
28
.
11.
Lawrie
,
J.
, and
O'Donoghue
,
J.
,
1964
, “
The Mechanism of Lubrication in a Reciprocating Seal
,”
Second International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, Cranfield, UK, pp.
69
80
.
12.
Field
,
G.
, and
Nau
,
B.
,
1972
, “
An Experimental Study of Reciprocating Rubber Seals
,”
Institution of Mechanical Engineers Symposium on Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
, Leeds, UK, pp.
29
36
.
13.
Dowson
,
D.
, and
Swales
,
P.
,
1969
, “
The Development of Elastohydrodynamic Conditions in a Reciprocating Seal
,”
Fourth International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, Cranfield, UK, pp.
2
10
.
14.
Kaneta
,
M.
,
Todoroki
,
H.
,
Nishikawa
,
H.
,
Kanzaki
,
Y.
, and
Kawahara
,
Y.
,
2000
, “
Tribology of Flexible Seals for Reciprocating Motion
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
122
(
4
), pp.
787
795
.
15.
Hirano
,
F.
, and
Kaneta
,
M.
,
1971
, “
Experimental Investigation of Friction and Sealing Characteristics of Flexible Seals for Reciprocating Motion
,”
Fifth International Conference of Fluid Sealing
, Coventry, UK, pp.
33
48
.
16.
Nau
,
B.
,
1971
, “
Friction of Oil-Lubricated Sliding Rubber Seals
,”
Fifth International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, Coventry, UK, pp.
81
96
.
17.
Field
,
G.
, and
Nau
,
B.
,
1975
, “
The Effect of Design Parameters on the Lubrication of Reciprocating Rubber Seals
,”
Seventh International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, Nottingham, UK, pp.
24
26
.
18.
Rana
,
A.
,
2005
, “A Tribological Study of Elastomeric Reciprocating Seals for Hydraulic Actuators,”
Ph.D. thesis
, Imperial College London, London.http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.420927
19.
Field
,
G.
,
1973
, “The Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Rectangular Section Rubber Seals Under Conditions of Reciprocating Motion,” Ph.D. thesis, City University, London.
20.
Blok
,
H.
, and
Koens
,
H.
,
1965
, “
The Breathing Film Between a Flexible Seal and a Reciprocating Rod
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.
,
180
(
2
), pp.
221
223
.
21.
Iwanami
,
S.
, and
Tikamori
,
N.
,
1961
, “
Oil Leakage From an O-Ring Packing
,”
First International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, Harlow, UK, Paper No. B2.
22.
Kaneta
,
M.
,
1985
, “
Sealing Characteristics of Double Reciprocating Seals
,”
J. Jpn. Soc. Lubr. Eng.
,
30
(
3
), pp.
194
200
.
23.
Kambayashi
,
H.
, and
Ishiwata
,
H.
,
1964
, “
A Study of Oil Seals for Reciprocating Motion
,”
Second International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, Cranfield, UK, pp.
29
40
.
24.
Lindgren
,
H.
,
1986
, “Scraper Ring Properties and Behavior on Hydraulic Cylinders,” M.S. thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
25.
Karaszkiewicz
,
A.
,
1988
, “
Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Rubber Seals for Reciprocating Motion; Leakage of Seals With an O-Ring
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
21
(
6
), pp.
361
367
.
26.
Roberts
,
A.
, and
Tabor
,
D.
,
1968
, “
Fluid Film Lubrication of Rubber—An Interferometric Study
,”
Wear
,
11
(
2
), pp.
163
166
.
27.
Kanzaki
,
Y.
,
Kawahara
,
Y.
, and
Kaneta
,
M.
,
1996
, “
Optical Interferometric Observations of Oil Film Behavior in Reciprocating Rubber Seals
,”
Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., Part C
,
62
(
600
), pp.
3229
3236
.
28.
Kanzaki
,
Y.
,
Kawahara
,
Y.
, and
Kaneta
,
M.
,
1997
, “
Oil Film Behavior and Friction Characteristics in Reciprocating Rubber Seals—Part 1: Single Contact
,”
15th International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, Maastricht, The Netherlands, Sept. 16–18, pp.
79
95
.
29.
Rana
,
A.
,
Sayles
,
R.
,
Nikas
,
G.
, and
Jalisi
,
I.
,
2001
, “
An Experimental Technique for Investigating the Sealing Principles of Reciprocating Elastomeric Seals for Use in Linear Hydraulic Actuator Assemblies
,”
Second World Tribology Congress
, Vienna, Austria, Sept. 3–7.http://www.tribology.me.uk/georgep11.htm
30.
Rana
,
A.
, and
Sayles
,
R.
,
2004
, “
An Experimental Study on the Friction Behavior of Aircraft Hydraulic Actuator Elastomeric Reciprocating Seals
,”
31st Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology
, Leeds, UK, Sept. 7–10, pp. 507–515.
31.
Tanoue
,
H.
,
Ishiwata
,
H.
, and
Tada
,
H.
,
1971
, “
Effects of Solid Particles in Lubricating Oil on the Wear of Oil Seals and Shafts
,”
Fifth International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, Coventry, UK, pp.
37
48
.
32.
Kawahara
,
Y.
,
Ohtake
,
Y.
, and
Hirabayashi
,
H.
,
1981
, “
Oil Film Formation of Oil Seals for Reciprocating Motion
,”
Ninth International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, The Netherlands, Apr. 1–3, pp.
73
85
.
33.
Dowson
,
D.
, and
Swales
,
P.
,
1967
, “
An Elastohydrodynamic Approach to the Problem of the Reciprocating Seal
,”
Third International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, Coventry, UK, Apr., pp.
33
44
.
34.
Field
,
G.
, and
Nau
,
B.
,
1975
, “
A Theoretical Study of the Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Reciprocating Rubber Seals
,”
ASLE Trans.
,
18
(
1
), pp.
48
54
.
35.
Hooke
,
C.
,
Lines
,
D.
, and
O'Donoghue
,
J.
,
1967
, “
A Theoretical Study of the Lubrication of Reciprocating O-Ring Seals
,”
Third International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, Coventry, UK, Apr., pp.
45
56
.
36.
Johannesson
,
H.
,
1983
, “
Oil Leakage and Friction Forces of Reciprocating O-Ring Seals Considering Cavitation
,”
ASME J. Lubr. Technol.
,
105
(
2
), pp.
288
296
.
37.
Johannesson
,
H.
,
1978
, “
Calculation of the Pressure Distribution in an O-Ring Seal Contact
,”
Fifth Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology
, Leeds, UK, Sept., pp.
379
387
.
38.
Karaszkiewicz
,
A.
,
1987
, “
Hydrodynamics of Rubber Seals for Reciprocating Motion, Lubricating Film Thickness, and Outleakage of O-Seals
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
26
(
11
), pp.
2180
2185
.
39.
Hirano
,
F.
, and
Kaneta
,
M.
,
1971
, “
Theoretical Investigation of Friction and Sealing Characteristics of Flexible Seals for Reciprocating Motion
,”
Fifth International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, Coventry, UK, pp.
17
32
.
40.
Ruskell
,
L.
,
1976
, “
Reynolds Equation and Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication in Metal Seals
,”
Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A
,
349
(
1658
), pp.
383
396
.
41.
Hirano
,
F.
, and
Kaneta
,
M.
,
1969
, “
Dynamic Behavior of Flexible Seals for Reciprocating Motion
,”
Fourth International Conference of Fluid Sealing
, Cranfield, UK, pp.
11
20
.
42.
Theyse
,
F.
,
1967
, “
The Inverse Hydrodynamic Theory and Its Application in the Design of Controlled Leakage Seals Between Moving Parts
,”
Third International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, Coventry, UK, Apr., pp.
17
32
.
43.
Fazekas
,
G.
,
1976
, “
On Reciprocating Toroidal Seals
,”
ASME J. Eng. Ind.
,
98
(
3
), pp.
783
787
.
44.
Karaszkiewicz
,
A.
,
1985
, “
Hydrodynamics of Rubber Seals for Reciprocating Motion
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev.
,
24
(
2
), pp.
283
289
.
45.
Medri
,
G.
,
Prati
,
E.
, and
Strozzi
,
A.
,
1981
, “
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication in Elastomeric Reciprocating Seals
,”
Ninth International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, The Netherlands, Apr. 1–3, pp.
55
71
.
46.
Hooke
,
C.
,
Lines
,
D.
, and
O-Donoghue
,
J.
,
1966
, “
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of O-Ring Seals
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.
,
181
(
9
), pp.
205
210
.
47.
Johannesson
,
H.
,
1981
, “
Optimum Pressure Distributions of Hydraulic Cylinder Seals
,”
Ninth International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, The Netherlands, Apr. 1–3, pp.
87
102
.
48.
Chivers
,
T.
, and
Hunt
,
R.
,
1978
, “
The Achievement of Minimum Leakage From Elastomeric Seals
,”
Eighth International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, Durham, UK, Sept. 11–13, pp.
31
40
.https://www.tib.eu/en/search/id/tema-archive%3ATEMAM79082374355/The-achievement-of-minimum-leakage-from-elastomeric/?tx_tibsearch_search%5Bsearchspace%5D=tn
49.
Ruskell
,
L.
,
1980
, “
A Rapidly Converging Theoretical Solution of the Elastohydrodynamic Problem for Rectangular Rubber Seals
,”
J. Mech. Eng. Sci.
,
22
(
1
), pp.
9
16
.
50.
Nau
,
B.
,
1987
, “
The State of the Art of Rubber-Seal Technology
,”
Rubber Chem. Technol.
,
60
(
3
), pp.
381
416
.
51.
Nau
,
B.
,
1999
, “
A Historical Review of Studies of Polymeric Seals in Reciprocating Hydraulic Systems
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J
,
213
(
3
), pp.
215
226
.
52.
Kanters
,
A.
,
1990
, “On the Calculation of Leakage and Friction of Reciprocating Elastomeric Seals,”
Ph.D. thesis
, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.https://pure.tue.nl/ws/files/3551197/326313.pdf
53.
Visscher
,
M.
, and
Kanters
,
A.
,
1990
, “
Literature Review and Discussion on Measurements of Leakage, Lubricant Film Thickness and Friction of Reciprocating Elastomeric Seals
,”
Lubr. Eng.
,
46
(
12
), pp.
785
791
.https://pure.tue.nl/ws/files/4294406/605660.pdf
54.
Nikas
,
G.
,
2010
, “
Eighty Years of Research on Hydraulic Reciprocating Seals: Review of Tribological Studies and Related Topics Since the 1930s
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J
,
224
(
1
), pp.
1
23
.
55.
Taylor
,
P.
,
1976
, “Liquid Spring-Shock Absorber,” Tayco Developments, Inc., North Tonawanda, NY, U.S. Patent No.
3,933,344
.http://www.google.ch/patents/US3933344
56.
Taylor
,
P.
,
1986
, “Tension-Compression Liquid Spring Unit,” Tayco Developments, Inc., North Tonawanda, NY, U.S. Patent No.
4,630,805
.https://www.google.ch/patents/US4630805
57.
Taylor
,
P.
,
1972
, “Fluid Amplified Liquid Spring Shocks and/or Shock Absorbers,” U.S. Patent No.
3,698,521
.https://www.google.com/patents/US3698521
58.
Davis
,
L.
,
1994
, “Liquid Spring Vehicular Suspension System and Associated Control Apparatus,” U.S. Patent No.
5,316,272
.https://www.google.tl/patents/US5316272
59.
Taylor
,
P.
,
1973
, “Fluid Amplified Liquid Spring Shock Absorbers With Improved Piston Heads,” U.S. Patent No.
3,722,640
.http://www.google.ch/patents/US3722640?hl=de
60.
Taylor
,
P.
,
1981
, “Liquid Spring With Integral Plastic Body and Seal and Fabrication Method Therefore,” Tayco Developments, Inc., North Tonawanda, NY, U.S. Patent No.
4,265,344
.https://www.google.ch/patents/US4265344
61.
Zumwalt
,
R.
,
1959
, “Double-Acting Liquid Spring,” U.S. Patent No.
2,899,194
.https://www.google.com/patents/US2899194
62.
Gail
,
W.
,
1961
, “Temperature Compensated Liquid Spring,” Industrial Pneumatic & Supply Co. Inc., Cleveland, OH, U.S. Patent No.
2,992,816
.https://www.google.com/patents/US2992816
63.
Taylor
,
D.
,
1989
, “Boot Seal for Liquid Spring Used in Corrosive Environments,” Tayco Developments, Inc., North Tonawanda, NY, U.S. Patent No.
4,819,919
.http://www.google.com/patents/US4819919
64.
Rene
,
L.
,
1953
, “Liquid Spring Shock-Absorber,” U.S. Patent No.
2,650,820
.http://www.google.com.pg/patents/US2650820
65.
Taylor
,
P.
,
1957
, “Tension Liquid Spring,” U.S. Patent No.
2,785,887
.https://www.google.com/patents/US2785887
66.
Taylor
,
D.
,
1976
, “Liquid Spring, Vehicle Suspension System and Method for Producing a Low Variance in Natural Frequency Over a Predetermined Load Range,” Tayco Developments, Inc., North Tonawanda, NY, U.S. Patent No.
3,947,004
.https://www.google.com.pg/patents/US3947004
67.
Kirchner
,
H.
,
1978
, “Vehicle Suspension Employing a Liquid Spring,” U.S. Patent No.
4,079,923
.http://www.google.com/patents/US4079923
68.
Davis
,
L.
,
1994
, “Liquid Spring Having Improved Damper Valve Structure,” U.S. Patent No.
5,305,859
.http://www.google.com/patents/US5305859
69.
Andrews
,
Z.
,
1968
, “Breaking Liquid Spring Support With Dormant Lockout,” U.S. Patent No.
3,367,235
.https://www.google.ch/patents/US3367235
70.
Lee
,
D.
,
1999
, “Self-Centering Liquid Spring Assembly and Constructions Thereof,” Tayco Developments, Inc., North Tonawanda, NY, U.S. Patent No.
5,890,705
.http://www.google.com/patents/US5890705
71.
Taylor
,
P.
,
1988
, “Energy Absorber Device With Composite Plastic Casing Having High Strength Inner Cylinder,” Tayco Developments, Inc., North Tonawanda, NY, U.S. Patent No.
4,738,339
.http://www.google.ch/patents/US4738339
72.
Vick
,
R.
,
1984
, “Liquid Spring Accumulator With Self Charging Means,” The Bendix Corporation, Chicago, IL, U.S. Patent No.
4,450,870
.https://encrypted.google.com/patents/US4450870?cl=fr
73.
Wilson
,
T.
, and
Brown
,
C.
,
1965
, “Liquid Spring Mounting Means for a Launching Tube,” U.S. Patent No.
3,221,602
.https://www.google.com/patents/US3221602
74.
Fagan
,
C.
, and
Lynn
,
R.
,
1973
, “Energy Absorbing Landing Gear,” Textron Inc, Providence, RI, U.S. Patent No.
3,716,208
.http://www.google.co.in/patents/US3716208
75.
Davis
,
L.
,
1992
, “Dual Piston Strut,” U.S. Patent No.
5,152,547
.https://www.google.com.pg/patents/US5152547
76.
Taylor
,
D.
,
1983
, “Liquid Energy Absorber Device,” Tayco Developments, Inc., North Tonawanda, NY, U.S. Patent No.
4,389,045
.http://www.google.co.in/patents/US4389045
77.
Taylor
,
P.
,
1959
, “Liquid Spring Seal,” Tayco Developments, Inc., North Tonawanda, NY, U.S. Patent No.
2,909,398
.http://www.google.co.in/patents/US2909398
78.
Taylor
,
D.
,
1990
, “Shock Isolation Method and Apparatus for Ship-Mounted Device,” Tayco Developments, Inc., North Tonawanda, NY, U.S. Patent No.
4,892,051
.http://www.google.com/patents/US4892051
79.
Taylor
,
P.
,
1958
, “Liquid Spring,” Wales-Strippit of Canada Ltd. , Hamilton, ON, Canada, U.S. Patent No.
2,837,329
.https://www.google.com/patents/US2837329
80.
Taylor
,
P.
,
1965
, “Liquid Spring,” Tayco Developments, Inc., North Tonawanda, NY, U.S. Patent No.
3,204,945
.https://www.google.com/patents/US3204945
81.
Delorenzis
,
D.
,
Cajulis
,
C.
, and
Meyer
,
R.
,
2003
, “Single Valve Control of Damping and Stiffness in a Liquid Spring System,” Liquid Spring Technologies, Inc, Lafayette, IN, U.S. Patent No.
6,598,885
.http://www.google.com/patents/US6598885
82.
Delorenzis
,
D.
,
Meyer
,
R.
, and
Lamkin
,
D.
,
2001
, “Compressible Liquid Vibration Control System,” Liquid Spring Technologies, Inc, Lafayette, IN, U.S. Patent No.
6,293,530
.https://www.google.ch/patents/US6293530
83.
Delorenzis
,
D.
, and
Meyer
,
R.
,
2004
, “Seamless Control of Spring Stiffness in a Liquid Spring System,” Liquid Spring Technologies, Inc, Lafayette, IN, U.S. Patent No.
6,679,504
.http://www.google.com/patents/US20100044978
84.
Beercheck
,
R.
,
1979
, “
Putting the Heat on Seal Materials
,”
Mach. Des.
,
51
(
24
), pp.
124
127
.
85.
Bertolet
,
E.
,
1956
, “
Teflon—Use of Teflon Packings and Seals in Hydraulic Operations
,”
12th National Conference on Industrial Hydraulics
, pp.
56
68
.
86.
Atkins
,
L.
,
1975
, “
The Design of Seals in PTFE
,”
Seventh International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, Nottingham, UK, pp.
11
24
.
87.
Flitney
,
R.
, and
Nau
,
B.
,
1983
, “
Performance of PTFE Reciprocating Seals
,”
Lubr. Eng.
,
39
(
5
), pp.
285
291
.
88.
Lewis
,
M.
,
1986
, “
Friction and Wear of PTFE-Based Reciprocating Seals
,”
Lubr. Eng.
,
42
(
3
), pp.
152
158
.
89.
Prokop
,
J.
, and
Müller
,
H.
,
1987
, “
Friction Behaviour and Friction Coefficients of PTFE Hydraulic Rod Seals
,”
Konstruktion
,
39
(
4
), pp.
131
137
.
90.
Stachowiak
,
G.
, and
Batchelor
,
A.
,
2005
,
Engineering Tribology
,
3rd ed.
, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK.
91.
Hoffman
,
C.
,
Müller
,
H.
, and
Hass
,
W.
,
1996
, “
Friction of PTFE Shaft Seals
,”
Konstruktion
,
48
(
4
), pp.
94
98
.
92.
Garlock Sealing Technologies
,
2010
, “Hydraulic Components Technical Manual,” Garlock Sealing Technologies, Palmyra, NY, accessed Nov. 22, 2017, https://www.garlock.com/en/downloads/hydraulic-components-technical-manual
93.
Müller
,
H.
, and
Nau
,
B.
,
1998
,
Fluid Sealing Technology
(Mechanical Engineering Series), Vol.
117
, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.
94.
Lee
,
N.
, and
Jang
,
J.
,
2000
, “
The Effect of Fiber-Content Gradient on the Mechanical Properties of Glass-Fiber-Mat/Polypropylene Composites
,”
Compos. Sci. Technol.
,
60
(
2
), pp.
209
217
.
95.
Ganghoffer
,
J.
,
Brillard
,
A.
, and
De-Borst
,
R.
,
1998
, “
Description of the Mechanical Behavior of Micropolar Adhesives
,”
Math. Comput. Model.
,
27
(
7
), pp.
23
49
.
96.
Caddock
,
B.
, and
Evans
,
K.
,
1995
, “
Negative Poisson Ratios and Strain-Dependent Mechanical Properties in Arterial Prostheses
,”
Biomaterials
,
16
(
4
), pp.
1109
1115
.
97.
Li
,
W.
, and
Mays
,
S.
,
2003
, “
Analysis of PTFE Material in Rotary Seals
,”
17th International Conference on Fluid Sealing
, York, UK, Apr., pp.
157
165
.
98.
Chesterton
,
2014
, “1600/1601 Valve Packing Installation Instructions,” Chesterton, Groveland, MA, accessed Nov. 22, 2017, http://chestertondocs.chesterton.com/Stationary/mi1600_M.pdf
99.
Vapnik
,
B.
,
Grunskii
,
B.
,
Barsukov
,
A.
, and
Shilov
,
V.
,
1983
, “
Investigation of End-Face Carbon-Graphite Seal for Hydraulic Turbine Shaft
,”
Energomashinostroenie
,
8
, pp.
2
3
.
100.
Wei
,
L.
,
Gu
,
B.
,
Feng
,
X.
,
Feng
,
F.
, and
Huang
,
J.
,
2009
, “
Fractal Characteristics of End Faces of Carbon-Graphite Seal Rings
,”
International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation
(
ICTMA
), Hunan, China, Apr. 11–12, pp.
813
816
.
101.
Raub
,
H.
,
1979
, “
Flexible Graphite Packing Replaces Mechanical Seals
,”
Lubr. Eng.
,
35
(
8
), pp.
429
434
.
102.
Vasse
,
C.
,
2010
, “
Developing a Numerical Model to Describe the Mechanical Behavior of Compressed Expanded Graphite for Valve Stem Sealing
,”
ASME
Paper No. PVP2009-77395.
103.
Xu
,
J.
,
1987
, “
Flexible Graphite and Aluminum-Impregnated Graphite for Liquid Ammonia Pumps Sealing
,”
Huagong Jixie
,
14
(
1
), pp.
14
18
.
104.
Roe
,
M.
, and
Torrance
,
A.
,
2008
, “
The Surface Failure and Wear of Graphite Seals
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
41
(
11
), pp.
1002
1008
.
105.
Bisztray-Balku
,
S.
,
1995
, “
Tribology of Hydraulic Seals for Alternating Motion
,”
Period. Polytech., Mech. Eng.
,
39
(
3–4
), pp.
225
246
.https://search.proquest.com/openview/8f76609a7ff6411aa15ee88cccad46e6/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=2034357
106.
Brahney
,
J.
,
1986
, “
Designing Seals for Future Hydraulic Systems
,”
Aerosp. Eng.
, pp.
44
48
.
107.
Berner
,
W.
,
1982
, “
Developing New Seal Materials Through Dynamic Testing
,”
Lubr. Eng.
,
38
(
6
), pp.
349
358
.
108.
Nikas
,
G.
,
2004
, “
Theoretical Study of Solid Back-Up Rings for Elastomeric Seals in Hydraulic Actuators
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
37
(
9
), pp.
689
699
.
109.
Hercules,
2010
, “Hercules Sealing Products Catalogue,” Hercules, Clearwater, FL.
110.
Chesterton
,
2017
, “Chesterton 1400R Carbon-Reinforced Graphite Packing,” Chesterton, Groveland, MA, accessed Nov. 22, 2017, http://chestertonrotating.chesterton.com/en-us/Products/Pages/1400R.aspx
You do not currently have access to this content.