Recently, one of the present authors proposed a new model to explain the generation mechanism of brake squeal based on the time delay between a varying applied normal force and the resulting friction force. The present work conducts a series of experimental tests examining the behavior of this time delay using a special test apparatus. The test apparatus suppresses the effect of interference in the time delay owing to the excitation normal force to the greatest extent possible. Several calibration tests of the test apparatus are conducted to ensure the validity of the normal force and friction force measurements. The varying friction force is extracted from the overall friction force signal without phase distortion using a zero-phase filter. The test results demonstrate a time delay between the varying normal force and the resulting friction force under various testing parameters. The time delay is found to increase with increasing excitation frequency. The generation mechanism of the time delay is also discussed.

References

References
1.
Chen
,
G. X.
, and
Zhou
,
Z. R.
,
2007
, “
A Self-Excited Vibration Model Based on Special Elastic Vibration Modes of Friction Systems and Time Delays Between the Normal and Friction Forces: A New Mechanism for Squealing Noise
,”
Wear
,
262
(
9–10
), pp.
1123
1139
.
2.
Chen
,
G. X.
,
Liu
,
Q. Y.
,
Jin
,
X. S.
, and
Zhou
,
Z. R.
,
2008
, “
Stability Analysis of a Squealing Vibration Model With Time Delay
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
311
(
1–2
), pp.
516
536
.
3.
Bernhard
,
K.
, and
Frank
,
E. T.
,
2000
, “
Slider Vibration Analysis at Contact Using Time-Frequency Analysis and Wavelet Transforms
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
123
(
3
), pp.
548
554
.
4.
Prakash
,
V.
,
1998
, “
Frictional Response of Sliding Interfaces Subjected to Time Varying Normal Pressures
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
120
(
1
), pp.
97
102
.
5.
Gustafsson
,
F.
,
1996
, “
Determining the Initial States in Forward-Backward Filtering
,”
IEEE Trans. Signal Process.
,
44
(
4
), pp.
988
992
.
6.
Dahl
,
P. R.
,
1975
, “
Solid Friction Damping of Spacecraft Oscillations
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 1975-1104.
7.
Armstrong-Helouvry
,
B.
,
1991
,
Control of Machines With Friction
,
Kluver Academic Publishers
,
Norwell, MA
.
8.
Armstrong-Helouvry
,
B.
,
1993
, “
Stick Slip and Control in Low-Speed Motion
,”
IEEE Trans. Autom. Control
,
38
(
10
), pp.
1483
1496
.
9.
Lovell
,
M.
,
Khonsari
,
M.
, and
Marangoni
,
R.
, “
Evaluation of Ultra-Low Speed Jitter in Rolling Balls
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
114
(
3
), pp.
589
594
.
10.
Bowden
,
F. P.
, and
Tabor
,
D.
,
2001
,
The Friction and Lubrication of Solids
, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
11.
Dankowicz
,
H.
,
1999
, “
On the Modeling of Dynamic Friction Phenomena
,”
ZAMM‐J. Appl. Math. Mech.
,
79
(
6
), pp.
399
409
.
12.
Ruina
,
A. L.
,
1985
, “
Constitutive Relations for Frictional Slip
,”
Mechanics of Geomaterials
,
Z. P.
Bazant
, ed.,
Wiley
,
New York
, pp.
169
188
.
13.
Suh
,
N. P.
, and
Sin
,
H. C.
,
1981
, “
The Genesis of Friction
,”
Wear
,
69
(
1
), pp.
91
114
.
14.
Hess
,
D. P.
, and
Soom
,
A.
,
1990
, “
Friction at a Lubricated Line Contact Operating at Oscillating Sliding Velocities
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
112
(
1
), pp.
147
152
.
15.
Tan
,
K. K.
,
Huang
,
S.
, and
Lee
,
T. H.
,
2004
, “
Adaptive Friction Compensation With a Time-Delay Friction Model
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part I
,
218
(
3
), pp.
173
183
.
16.
Armstrong-Helouvry
,
B.
,
1994
, “
Frictional Memory in Servo Control
,”
American Control Conference
(
ACC
), Baltimore, MD, June 29–July 1, pp.
1786
1790
.
17.
Klarbring
,
A.
,
Ciavarella
,
M.
, and
Barber
,
J. R.
,
2007
, “
Shakedown in Elastic Contact Problems With Coulomb Friction
,”
Int. J. Solids Struct.
,
44
(
25
), pp.
8355
8365
.
18.
Mavros
,
G.
,
Rahnejat
,
H.
, and
King
,
P. D.
,
2005
, “
Transient Analysis of Tyre Friction Generation Using a Brush Model With Interconnected Viscoelastic Bristles
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part K
,
219
(
3
), pp.
275
283
.
19.
Johnson
,
K. L.
,
1985
,
Contact Mechanics
,
Cambridge University Press
,
Cambridge, U
K.
20.
Gore
,
M.
,
Theaker
,
M.
,
Howell-Smith
,
S.
,
Rahnejat
,
H.
, and
King
,
P. D.
,
2014
, “
Direct Measurement of Piston Friction of Internal-Combustion Engines Using the Floating-Liner Principle
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D
,
228
(
3
), pp.
344
354
.
21.
Forster
,
H.
,
Fisher
,
J.
,
Dowson
,
D.
, and
Wright
,
V.
,
1995
, “
The Effect of Stationary Loading on the Fiction and Boundary Lubrication of Articular Cartilage in the Mixed Lubrication Regime
,”
Tribol. Ser.
,
30
, pp.
71
83
.
22.
Rahnejat
,
H.
,
1985
, “
Computational Modelling of Problems in Contact Dynamics
,”
Eng. Anal.
,
2
(
4
), pp.
192
197
.
23.
Bozkaya
,
D.
, and
Muftu
,
S.
,
2008
, “
The Effects of Interfacial Particles on the Contact of an Elastic Sphere With a Rigid Flat Surface
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
130
(
4
), p.
041401
.
24.
Prasad
,
B. K.
,
Rathod
,
S.
,
Yadav
,
M. S.
, and
Modi
,
O. P.
,
2010
, “
Effects of Some Solid Lubricants Suspended in Oil Toward Controlling the Wear Performance of a Cast Iron
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
132
(
4
), p.
041602
.
You do not currently have access to this content.