The field performance of hydraulic oils depends on factors such as the viscosity index (VI), flash point (FP), pour point (PP), and demulsibility. A hydraulic oil formulation was performed by applying a multiresponse optimization, for which the PP was minimized, the FP, demulsibility, and VI were maximized. The range of viscosities at 40 and 100 °C was selected according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) viscosity grade for hydraulic oil. The experiments were accomplished according to an extreme vertices mixture design using solvent neutral-100 (SN-100) and SN-500 as major components and polyisobutene (PIB) as minor component. The results shows that the optimum formulation consisted of 37.5% SN-100, 60% SN-500, and 2.5% PIB, and the values of FP, PP, VI, demulsibility at 30 mins and viscosities at 40 and 100 °C were equal to 227 °C, −6 °C, 107.5, 28/2012/40, 67.3 cS, and 9 cS, respectively.

References

References
1.
Rudnick
,
L. R.
,
2006
,
Synthetic, Mineral Oils and Bio-Based Lubricants
,
Taylor & Francis
,
London
.
2.
Wessol
,
A. A.
, and
Pirro
,
D. M.
,
2001
,
Lubricants Fundamentals
,
Marcel Dekker
,
New York
.
3.
Totten
,
G. E.
,
2000
,
Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology
,
Marcel Dekker
,
New York
.
4.
Totten
,
G. E.
,
2006
,
Handbook of Lubrication and Tribology
,
Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
,
Boca Raton
.
5.
Mang
,
T.
, and
Dresel
,
W.
,
2007
,
Lubricants and Lubrication
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
6.
Fenna
,
D.
,
2004
,
Oxford Dictionary of Units and Measures
,
Oxford University Press
,
Oxford, UK
.
7.
Fotheringham
,
J. F.
,
1993
,
Polybutenes in Synthetic Lubricants and High Performance Functional Fluids
,
Marcel Dekker
,
New York
.
8.
Crompton
,
T. R.
,
2006
,
Polymer Reference Book
,
Rapra Technology Limited
,
Shrewsbury Shropshire, UK
.
9.
Agarwal
,
H.
, and
Renaud
,
J.
,
2004
, “
Reliability Based Design Optimization Using Response Surfaces in Application to Multidisciplinary Systems
,”
Eng. Optim.
,
36
(
3
), pp.
291
311
.
10.
Kamouna
,
A.
,
Chaabouni
,
M.
,
Sergent
,
M.
, and
Phan-Tan-Luu
,
R.
,
2002
, “
Mixture Design Applied to the Formulation of Hydrotropes for Liquid Detergents
,”
Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst.
,
63
(
1
), pp.
69
79
.
11.
Mensah-Brown
,
H.
,
2013
, “
Optimization of the Production of Lubricating Oil From Re-Refined Used Lubricating Oil Using Response Surface Methodology
,”
ARPAN J. Eng. Appl. Sci.
,
8
(
9
), pp.
749
756
, http://www.arpnjournals.com/jeas/research_papers/rp_2013/jeas_0913_948.pdf
12.
Orives
,
J. R.
,
Galvan
,
D.
,
Coppo
,
R. L.
,
Rodrigues
,
C. H. F.
,
Angilelli
,
K. G.
, and
Borsato
,
D.
,
2014
, “
Multiresponse Optimisation on Biodiesel Obtained Through a Ternary Mixture of Vegetable Oil and Animal Fat: Simplex-Centroid Mixture Design Application
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
79
, pp.
398
404
.
13.
Brandvik
,
P. J.
,
1998
, “
Statistical Simulation as an Effective Tool to Evaluate and Illustrate the Advantage of Experimental Designs and Response Surface Methods
,”
Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst.
,
42
(
1–2
), pp.
51
61
.
14.
Brandvik
,
P. J.
, and
Daling
,
P. S.
,
1998
, “
Optimisation of Oil Spill Dispersant Composition by Mixture Design and Response Surface Methods
,”
Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst.
,
42
(
1–2
), pp.
63
72
.
15.
Cafaggi
,
S.
,
Leardi
,
R.
,
Parodi
,
B.
,
Caviglioli
,
G.
, and
Bignardi
,
G.
,
2002
, “
An Example of Application of a Mixture Design With Constraints to a Pharmaceutical Formulation
,”
Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst.
,
65
(
1
), pp.
139
147
.
16.
Nehme
,
G. N.
, and
Dib
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Optimization of Mechanism of Boundary Lubrication in Fully Formulated Commercial Engine Oil Using Design of Experiment
,”
Tribol. Trans.
,
54
(
2
), pp.
208
226
.
17.
Brereton
,
R. G.
,
2003
,
Chemometrics-Data Analysis for the Laboratory and Chemical Plant
,
Wiley
,
UK
.
18.
Bendebane
,
F.
,
Bouziane
,
L.
, and
Ismail
,
F.
,
2013
, “
Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Naphthalene. Application of a Mixture Design and Optimization
,”
Energy Procedia
,
36
, pp.
1241
1248
.
19.
Nehme
,
G.
,
2011
, “
Interactions of Fluorinated Catalyst and Polutetrafluoroethylene in Two Different Plain Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate Oils and One Fully Formulated Oil Using Design of Experiment
,”
Lubr. Sci.
,
23
(4), pp.
181
201
.
20.
Neveu
,
C. D.
, and
Schweder
,
R.
,
2001
, “
Development of a Statistical Method to Formulate High-VI Hydraulic Oils
,”
Lubr. Sci.
,
14
(1), pp.
57
71
.
21.
Box
,
G. E. P.
, and
Draper
,
N. R.
,
2007
,
Response Surfaces, Mixtures, and Ridge Analyses
,
Wiley
,
Hoboken, NJ
.
22.
Brereton
,
R. G.
,
2007
,
Applied Chemometrics for Scientists
,
Wiley
,
UK
.
23.
Lazic
,
Z. R.
,
2004
,
Design of Experiments in Chemical Engineering
,
Wiley-Vch Verlag Gmbh & Co
,
Weinheim, Germany
.
24.
Montgomery
,
D. C.
,
2013
,
Design and Analysis of Experiments
,
Wiley
,
Phoenix, AZ
.
25.
Cornell
,
J. A.
,
2002
,
Experiments With Mixtures
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
26.
Ferreira
,
S. L. C.
,
Bruns
,
R. E.
,
da Silva
,
E. G. P.
,
dos Santos
,
W. N. L.
,
Quintella
,
C. M.
,
David
,
J. M.
,
de Andrade
,
J. B.
,
Breitkreitz
,
M. C.
,
Jardim
, I
. C. S. F.
, and
Neto
,
B. B.
,
2007
, “
Statistical Designs and Response Surface Techniques for the Optimization of Chromatographic Systems
,”
J. Chromatogr. A
,
1158
(
1–2
), pp.
2
14
.
27.
Smilde
,
A.
,
Bro
,
R.
, and
Geladi
,
P.
,
2004
,
Multi-Way Analysis With Applications in the Chemical Sciences
,
Wiley
,
UK
.
You do not currently have access to this content.