The objective of design optimization is to determine the design that minimizes the objective function by changing design variables and satisfying design constraints. During multi-objective optimization, which has been widely applied to improve bearing designs, designers must consider several design criteria or objective functions simultaneously. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is known for its simple implementation and high efficiency in solving multifactor but single-objective optimization problems. This paper introduces a new multi-objective algorithm (MOA) based on the PSO and Pareto methods that can greatly reduce the number of objective function calls when a suitable swarm size is set.

References

References
1.
Deb
,
K.
,
2001
,
Multi-Objective Optimization Using Evolutionary Algorithms
,
Wiley
,
West Sussex
, UK.
2.
Coello Coello
,
C. A.
,
Van Veldhuizen
,
D. A.
, and
Lamont
,
G. B.
,
2007
,
Evolutionary Algorithms for Solving Multi-Objective Problems
,
2nd ed.
,
Springer
,
New York
.
3.
Knowles
,
J.
,
Corne
,
D.
, and
Deb
,
K.
,
2007
,
Multi-Objective Problem Solving From Nature: From Concepts to Applications
,
Springer-Verlag
,
Berlin
, Germany.
4.
Hirani
,
H.
,
2004
, “
Multi-Objective Optimization of a Journal Bearing Using the Pareto Optimality Concept
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J
,
218
(
4
), pp.
323
336
.10.1243/1350650041762668
5.
Hirani
,
H.
, and
Suh
,
N. P.
,
2005
, “
Journal Bearing Design Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm and Axiomatic Design Approaches
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
38
(
5
), pp.
481
491
.10.1016/j.triboint.2004.10.008
6.
Wang
,
N.
, and
Chang
,
Y.-Z.
,
2004
, “
Application of the Genetic Algorithm to the Multi-Objective Optimization of Air Bearings
,”
Tribol. Lett.
,
17
(
2
), pp.
119
128
.10.1023/B:TRIL.0000032436.09396.d4
7.
Wang
,
N.
, and
Cha
,
K.-C.
,
2010
, “
Multi-Objective Optimization of Air Bearing Using Hypercube-Dividing Method
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
43
(
9
), pp.
1631
1638
.10.1016/j.triboint.2010.03.009
8.
Coello Coello
,
C. A.
,
Pulido
,
G. T.
, and
Lechuga
,
M. S.
,
2004
, “
Handling Multiple Objectives With Particle Swarm Optimization
,”
Evol. Comput., IEE
,
8
(
3
), pp.
256
279
.10.1109/TEVC.2004.826067
9.
Cagnina
,
L.
,
Esquivel
,
S. C.
, and
Coello Coello
,
C.
,
2005
, “
A Particle Swarm Optimizer for Multi-Objective Optimization
,”
J. Comput. Sci. Technol.
,
5
(
4
), pp.
204
210
.
10.
Reyes-Sierra
,
M.
, and
Coello Coello
,
C. A.
,
2006
, “
Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimizers: A Survey of the State-of-the-Art
,”
Int. J. Comput. Intell. Res.
,
2
(
3
), pp.
287
308
.
11.
Elhossini
,
A.
,
Areibi
,
S.
, and
Dony
,
R.
,
2010
, “
Strength Pareto Particle Swarm Optimization and Hybrid EA-PSO for Multi-Objective Optimization
,”
Evol. Comput.
,
18
(
1
), pp.
127
156
.10.1162/evco.2010.18.1.18105
12.
Kennedy
,
J.
, and
Eberhart
,
R.
,
1995
, “
Particle Swarm Optimization
,” Proceedings of the
IEEE
International Conference on Neural Networks
,
Perth, WA
, Nov. 27–Dec. 1, Vol.
4
, pp.
1942
1984
.10.1109/ICNN.1995.488968
13.
Kennedy
,
J.
, and
Eberhart
,
R. C.
,
2001
,
Swarm Intelligence
,
Morgan Kaufmann
,
San Francisco, CA
.
14.
Arora
,
J. S.
,
2012
,
Introduction to Optimum Design
,
Academic
,
Cambridge, MA
.
15.
Wang
,
N.
,
Huang
,
H.-C.
, and
Hsu
,
C.-R.
,
2013
, “
Parallel Optimization Design of Foil Bearing Using Particle Swarm Optimization Method
,”
Tribol. Trans.
,
56
(
3
), pp.
453
460
.10.1080/10402004.2012.758334
16.
Chang
,
S.-H.
, and
Jeng
,
Y.-R.
,
2013
, “
A Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for the Design of a Double-Pad Aerostatic Bearing With a Pocketed Orifice-Type Restrictor
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
136
(
2
), p.
021701
.10.1115/1.4026061
17.
He
,
S.
,
Prempain
,
E.
, and
Wu
,
Q. H.
,
2004
, “
An Improved Particle Swarm Optimizer for Mechanical Design Optimization Problems
,”
Eng. Optim.
,
36
(
5
), pp.
585
605
.10.1080/03052150410001704854
18.
Kim
,
I. Y.
, and
de Weck
,
O. L.
,
2005
, “
Adaptive Weighted-Sum Method for Bi-Objective Optimization: Pareto Front Generation
,”
Struct. Multidiscip. Optim.
,
29
(
2
), pp.
149
158
.10.1007/s00158-004-0465-1
19.
Chan
,
C.-W.
,
Han
,
Y.-F.
,
Wang
,
Z.
,
Wang
,
J.
,
Shi
,
F.
,
Wang
,
N.
, and
Wang
,
Q. J.
,
2014
, “
Exploration on a Fast EHL Computing Technology for Analyzing Journal Bearings With Engineered Surface Textures
,”
Tribol. Trans.
,
57
(
2
), pp.
206
215
.10.1080/10402004.2013.863987
20.
Wang
,
N.
,
Chang
,
S.-H.
, and
Huang
,
H.-C.
,
2010
, “
Stopping Criterion in Iterative Solution Methods for Reynolds Equations
,”
Tribol. Trans.
,
53
(
5
), pp.
739
747
.10.1080/10402001003753358
21.
Solcum
,
A. H.
,
1992
,
Precision Machine Design
,
Prentice-Hall
,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
.
You do not currently have access to this content.