Degradation of surfaces of hydroturbine components caused by impact of abrasive particles carried by flowing water is a serious issue. To counteract the same, surface modification of turbine materials by the application of protective coatings is gaining popularity these days. In this work, Cr3C2–NiCr coating was deposited on CA6NM turbine steel by the HVOF spray process and studied with regard to its performance under different slurry erosion conditions. The effect of three parameters, namely average particle size of slurry particles, speed (rpm), and slurry concentration on slurry erosion of this coating material, was studied by using a high speed erosion test rig. The analysis of the surfaces of the samples before and after slurry erosion tests was done by using SEM. The HVOF sprayed Cr3C2–NiCr coating showed very good performance under slurry erosion in comparison with uncoated CA6NM steel.

References

References
1.
Harsha
,
A. P.
, and
Bhaskar
,
D. K.
,
2008
, “
Solid Particle Erosion Behaviour of Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Materials and Correlation of Erosion Data With Erosion Models
,”
Mater. Design
,
29
(
9
), pp.
1745
1754
.10.1016/j.matdes.2008.03.016
2.
Sharma
,
D. P.
, and
Singh
,
S.
,
1987
, “
Operational Problems of Water Turbine In U.P.—With Special Reference to Tiloth Power Station
,”
Proc. All India Seminar on Metallurgical Problems in Power Projects, India
, pp.
18
35
.
3.
Naidu
,
B. S. K.
,
1999
, “
Developing Silt Consciousness in the Minds of Hydropower Engineers
,”
Proc. 1st International Conference on Silting Problems in Hydropower Plants
, India, pp.
1
36
.
4.
Zu
,
J. B.
,
Hutchings
,
I. M.
, and
Burstein
,
G. T.
,
1990
, “
Design of a Slurry Erosion Test Rig
,”
Wear
,
140
(
2
), pp.
331
344
.10.1016/0043-1648(90)90093-P
5.
Feng
,
Z.
, and
Ball
,
A.
,
1999
, “
The Erosion of Four Materials Using Seven Erodents—Towards an Understanding
,”
Wear
,
233–235
, pp.
674
684
.10.1016/S0043-1648(99)00176-3
6.
Tsai
,
W.
,
Humphrey
,
J. A. C.
, and
Cornet
,
I.
,
1981
, “
Experimental Measurement of Accelerated Erosion in a Slurry Pot Tester
,”
Wear
,
68
(
3
), pp.
289
303
.10.1016/0043-1648(81)90178-2
7.
Levy
,
A. V.
, and
Chik
,
P.
,
1983
, “
The Effects of Erodent Composition and Shape on the Erosion of Steel
,”
Wear
,
89
(
2
), pp.
151
162
.10.1016/0043-1648(83)90240-5
8.
Liebhard
,
M.
, and
Levy
,
A.
,
1991
, “
The Effect of Erodent Particle Characteristics on the Erosion of Metals
,”
Wear
,
151
(
2
), pp.
381
390
.10.1016/0043-1648(91)90263-T
9.
Frith
,
R. H.
, and
Scott
,
W.
,
1993
, “
Control of Solid Contamination in Hydraulic System: An Overview
,”
Wear
,
165
(
1
), pp.
69
74
.10.1016/0043-1648(93)90374-U
10.
Finnie
,
I.
,
1972
, “
Some Observations on the Erosion of Ductile Metals
,”
Wear
,
19
(
1
), pp.
81
90
.10.1016/0043-1648(72)90444-9
11.
Wang
,
Y. F.
, and
Yang
,
Z. G.
,
2008
, “
Finite Element Model of Erosive Wear on Ductile and Brittle Materials
,”
Wear
,
265
(
5–6
), pp.
871
878
.10.1016/j.wear.2008.01.014
12.
Joshi
,
S. V.
, and
Sivakumar
,
R.
,
1991
, “
Protective Coatings by Plasma Spraying
,”
Trans. Indian Ceram. Soc.
,
50
, pp.
50
59
.10.1080/0371750X.1991.10804475
13.
Budinski
,
K. G.
,
1988
,
Surface Engineering for Wear Resistance
,
Prentice Hall
,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
.
14.
Vuoristo
,
P.
,
Niemi
,
K.
,
Makela
,
A.
, and
Mantyla
,
T.
,
1994
, “
Abrasion and Erosion of Wear Resistance of Cr3C2–NiCr Coatings Prepared by Plasma, Detonation and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spraying
,”
Thermal Spray Industrial Applications
,
C. C.
Berndt
, and
S.
Sampath
, Eds.,
ASM International
,
Materials Park, OH
, pp.
121
126
.
15.
Goyal
,
D. K.
,
Singh
,
H.
,
Kumar
,
H.
, and
Sahni
,
V.
,
2012
, “
Slurry Erosion Behaviour of HVOF Sprayed WC–10Co–4Cr and Al2O3–13TiO2 Coatings on a Turbine Steel
,”
Wear
,
289
, pp.
46
57
.10.1016/j.wear.2012.04.016
16.
Ji
,
G. C.
,
Li
,
C. J.
,
Wang
,
Y. Y.
, and
Li
,
W. Y.
,
2007
, “
Erosion Performance of HVOF-Sprayed Cr3C2–NiCr Coatings
,”
J. Thermal Spray Technol.
,
16
(
4
), pp.
557
565
.10.1007/s11666-007-9052-5
17.
Matthews
,
S.
,
James
,
B.
, and
Hyland
,
M.
,
2010
, “
The Effect of Heat Treatment on the Oxidation Mechanism of Blended Powder Cr3C2–NiCr Coatings
,”
J. Thermal Spray Technol.
,
19
(
1–2
), pp.
119
127
.10.1007/s11666-009-9381-7
18.
Prasad
,
B. K.
,
Jha
,
A. K.
,
Modi
,
O. P.
, and
Yegneswaran
,
A. H.
,
2004
, “
Effect of Sand Concentration in the Medium and Travel Distance and Speed on the Slurry Wear Response of a Zinc-Based Alloy Alumina Particle Composite
,”
Tribol. Lett.
,
17
(
2
), pp.
301
309
.10.1023/B:TRIL.0000032468.27468.2c
19.
Postlethwaite
,
J.
, and
Nesic
,
S.
,
1993
, “
Erosion in Disturbed Liquid/Particle Pipe Flow: Effects of Flow Geometry and Particle Surface Roughness
,”
Corrosion
,
49
(
10
), pp.
850
857
.10.5006/1.3316009
20.
Salama
,
M. M.
,
2000
, “
An Alternative to API 14E Erosional Velocity Limits for Sand Laden Fluids
,”
ASME J. Energy Resources Technol.
,
122
(
2
), pp.
71
77
.10.1115/1.483167
21.
Manisekaran
,
T.
,
Kamaraj
,
M.
,
Sharrif
,
S. M.
, and
Joshi
,
S. V.
,
2007
, “
Slurry Erosion Studies on Surface Modified 13Cr–4Ni Steels: Effect of Angle of Impingement and Particle Size
,”
J. Mater. Eng. Perform.
,
16
(
5
), pp.
567
572
.10.1007/s11665-007-9068-5
22.
Gupta
,
R.
,
Singh
,
S. N.
, and
Sehadri
,
V.
,
1995
, “
Prediction of Uneven Wear in a Slurry Pipeline on the Basis of Measurements in a Pot Tester
,”
Wear
,
184
(
2
), pp.
169
178
.10.1016/0043-1648(94)06566-7
23.
Peace
,
G. S.
,
1993
,
Taguchi Methods: A Hands-on Approach
,
Addison-Wesley
,
Reading, MA
.
24.
Elkholy
,
A.
,
1983
, “
Prediction of Abrasion Wear for Slurry Pump Materials
,”
Wear
84
(
1
), pp.
39
49
.10.1016/0043-1648(83)90117-5
25.
Tarjan
,
I.
, and
Debreczeni
,
E.
,
1972
, “
Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on the Wear of Pipeline Caused by Hydraulic Transport
,”
Proc. 2nd International Conference on Hydraulic Transport of Solids in Pipes
, BHRA, Cranfield, UK, pp.
1
14
.
26.
Truscott
,
G. F.
,
1975
, “
A Literature Survey on Wear on Pipelines
,” BHRA Fluid Engineering, Cranfield Publications, Cranfield, UK, TN 1295.
27.
Levy
,
A. V.
, and
Hickey
,
G.
,
1987
, “
Liquid–Solid Particles Slurry Erosion of Steels
,”
Wear
,
117
(
2
), pp.
129
146
.10.1016/0043-1648(87)90251-1
28.
Gandhi
,
B. K.
,
Singh
,
S. N.
, and
Seshadri
,
V.
,
1999
, “
Study of the Parametric Dependence of Erosion Wear for the Parallel Flow of Solid–Liquid Mixtures
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
32
(
5
), pp.
275
282
.10.1016/S0301-679X(99)00047-X
29.
Bajracharya
,
T. R.
,
Acharya
,
B.
,
Joshi
,
C. B.
,
Saini
,
R. P.
, and
Dahlhaug
,
O. G.
, “
Sand Erosion of Pelton Turbine Nozzles and Buckets: A Case Study of Chilime Hydropower Plant
,”
Wear
,
264
(
3–4
), pp.
177
184
.10.1016/j.wear.2007.02.021
30.
Goyal
,
D. K.
,
Singh
,
H.
, and
Kumar
,
H.
,
2011
, “
An Overview of Slurry Erosion Control by the Application of High Velocity Oxy Fuel Sprayed Coatings
,”
J. Eng. Tribol.
,
225
(
11
), pp.
1092
1105
.10.1177/1350650111412443
31.
O'Flynn
,
D. J.
,
Bingley
,
M. S.
,
Bradley
,
M. S. A.
, and
Burnett
,
A. J.
,
2001
, “
A Model to Predict the Solid Particle Erosion Rate of Metals and Its Assessment Using Heat-Treated Steels
,”
Wear
,
248
(
1–2
), pp.
162
177
.10.1016/S0043-1648(00)00554-8
32.
Hutchings
,
I. M.
,
1992
,
Tribology: Friction and Wear of Engineering Materials
,
Edward Arnold
,
London
.
33.
Levy
,
A. V.
,
1995
,
Solid Particle Erosion and Erosion-Corrosion of Materials
,
ASM International
,
Materials Park, OH
.
34.
Ruff
,
A. W.
, and
Wiederhorn
,
S. M.
,
1979
, “
Erosion by Solid Particle Impact
,”
Treatise on Materials Science and Technology
,
C. M.
Preece
, Ed.,
Academic
,
New York
, pp.
69
126
.
35.
Wheeler
,
D. W.
, and
Wood
,
R. J. K.
,
2005
, “
Erosion of Hard Surface Coatings for Use in Offshore Gate Valves
,”
Wear
,
258
(
1–4
), pp.
526
536
.10.1016/j.wear.2004.03.035
36.
Santa
,
J. F.
,
Baena
,
J. C.
, and
Toro
,
A.
,
2007
, “
Slurry Erosion of Thermal Spray Coatings and Stainless Steels for Hydraulic Machinery
,”
Wear
,
263
(
1–6
), pp.
258
264
.10.1016/j.wear.2006.12.061
37.
Kingswell
,
R.
,
Rickerby
,
D. S.
,
Bull
,
S. J.
, and
Scott
,
K. T.
,
1991
, “
Erosive Wear of Thermally Sprayed Tungsten Coatings
,”
Thin Solid Films
,
198
, pp.
139
148
.10.1016/0040-6090(91)90332-R
38.
Hawthorne
,
H. M.
,
Arsenault
,
B.
,
Immarigeon
,
J. P.
,
Legoux
,
J. G.
, and
Parameswaran
,
V. R.
,
1999
, “
Comparison of Slurry and Dry Erosion Behaviour of Some HVOF Thermal Sprayed Coatings
,”
Wear
,
225–229
, pp.
825
834
.10.1016/S0043-1648(99)00034-4
39.
Lathabai
,
S.
,
Ottmuller
,
M.
, and
Fernandez
,
I.
,
1998
, “
Solid Particle Erosion Behaviour of Thermal Spray Ceramic, Metallic and Polymer Coatings
,”
Wear
,
221
(
2
), pp.
93
108
.10.1016/S0043-1648(98)00267-1
You do not currently have access to this content.