According to the extended Reynolds theory, surface roughness contributes to the pressure buildup as well as shear stress and transport in the film flow. The effect is usually quantified using pressure and shear flow factors. The influence of the pattern directionality relative to the sliding motion may be considered using an anisotropic model of flow factors. The goal of the present study is to quantify these effects based on a precise numerical solution of the Navier–Stokes equations. For the computation the open source finite volume code OpenFOAM is used. The computational setup allows consideration of the lubrication film between two rough surfaces in relative motion. The roughness of the surfaces is simplified and parameterized using trigonometric functions.

References

References
1.
Hamilton
,
D.
,
Walowit
,
J.
, and
Allen
,
C.
,
1966
, “
A Theory of Lubrication by Microirregularities
,”
ASME J. Basic Eng.
,
88
(
1
), pp.
177
185
.10.1115/1.3645799
2.
Patir
,
N.
, and
Cheng
,
H.
,
1978
, “
An Average Flow Model for Determining Effects of 3D Roughness on Partial Hydrodynamic Lubrication
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
100
(1), pp.
12
17
.10.1115/1.3453103
3.
Patir
,
N.
, and
Cheng
,
H.
,
1979
, “
Application of Average Flow Model to Lubrication Between Rough Sliding Surfaces
,”
ASME J. Lub. Tech.
,
101
(2), pp.
220
229
.10.1115/1.3453329
4.
Letalleur
,
N.
,
Plourabou
,
F.
, and
Prat
,
M.
,
2002
, “
Average Flow Model of Rough Surface Lubrication: Flow Factors for Sinusoidal Surfaces
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
124
(3), pp.
539
546
.10.1115/1.1467084
5.
Sahlin
,
F.
,
Almqvist
,
A.
,
Larsson
,
R.
, and
Glavatskih
,
S.
,
2007
, “
Rough Surface Flow Factors in Full Film Lubrication Based on a Homogenization Technique
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
40
, pp.
1025
1034
.10.1016/j.triboint.2006.09.007
6.
Knoll
,
G.
, and
Lagemann
,
V.
,
2007
, “
Simulationsverfahren zur tribologischen Kennwertbildung rauer Oberflchen, Teil 1-Einfluss der bearbeitungsbedingten Oberflche auf die hydrodynamische Tragfhigkeit geschmierter Kontakte
,”
Tribol. Schmierungstech.
,
49
, pp.
12
15
.
7.
Brenner
,
G.
,
Al-Zoubi
,
A. M.
,
Mukinovic
,
H. S.
, and
Swoboda
,
S.
,
2007
, “
Numerical Simulation of Surface Roughness Effects in Laminar Lubrication Using the Lattice-Boltzmann Method
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
129
(3), pp.
603
610
.10.1115/1.2736452
8.
Tripp
,
J.
,
1983
, “
Surface Roughness Effects in Hydrodynamic Lubrication: The Flow Factor Method
,”
ASME J. Lub. Tech.
,
105
(
3
), pp.
458
463
.10.1115/1.3254641
9.
Lo
,
S.-W.
,
1992
, “
On the Effects of Roughness Orientation
A Mapping and Double Scale Analysis of Flow Factors
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
114
(4), pp.
747
754
.10.1115/1.2920944
10.
Li
,
W.-L.
,
Weng
,
C.-I.
, and
Hwang
,
C.-C.
,
1997
, “
An Average Reynolds Equation for Non-Newtonian Fluid With Application to the Lubrication of the Magnetic Head-Disk Interface
,”
Tribol. Trans.
,
40
(
1
), pp.
111
119
.10.1080/10402009708983636
11.
Li
,
W.-L.
,
2000
, “
Some Discussions on the Flow Factor Tensor” Considerations of Roughness Orientation and Flow Rheology
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
122
(4), pp.
869
871
.10.1115/1.1310368
12.
Tala-Ighil
,
N.
,
Maspeyrot
,
P.
,
Fillon
,
M.
, and
Bounif
,
A.
,
2007
, “
Effects of Surface Texture on Journal-Bearing Characteristics Under Steady-State Operating Conditions
,”
J. Eng. Tribol.
,
221
, pp.
623
633
.
13.
Nanbu
,
T.
,
Ren
,
N.
,
Yasuda
,
Y.
,
Zhu
,
D.
, and
Wang
,
Q.
,
2008
, “
Micro-Textures in Concentrated Conformal-Contact Lubrication: Effects of Texture Bottom Shape and Surface Relative Motion
,”
Tribol. Lett.
,
29
, pp.
241
252
.10.1007/s11249-008-9302-9
14.
Ren
,
N.
,
Zhu
,
D.
,
Chen
,
W.
,
Liu
,
Y.
, and
Wang
,
Q.
,
2009
, “
A 3D Deterministic Model for Rough Surface Line-Contact EHL Problems
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
131
(1), p.
011501
.10.1115/1.2991291
15.
Zhu
,
D.
, and
Wang
,
Q.
,
2013
, “
Effect of Roughness Orientation on the Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Film Thickness
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
135
(3), p.
031501
.10.1115/1.4023250
16.
White
,
J.
,
2013
, “
Surface Roughness Effects in the Region Between High Wave Number and High Bearing Number Limited Lubricant Flows
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
135
(4), p.
041706
.10.1115/1.4024709
17.
Sahlin
,
F.
,
2005
, “
Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Rough Surfaces
,” Licentiate thesis, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
18.
Sahlin
,
F.
,
Glavatskih
,
S.
,
Almqvist
,
A.
, and
Larsson
,
R.
,
2005
, “
Two-Dimensional CFD-Analysis of Micro-Patterned Surfaces in Hydrodynamic Lubrication
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
127
(1), pp.
96
102
.10.1115/1.1828067
19.
Elrod
,
H.
,
1978
, “
A General Theory for Laminar Lubrication With Reynolds Roughness
,”
ASME J. Lub. Tech.
,
110
(
1
), pp.
8
14
.10.1115/1.3453283
20.
Arghir
,
M.
,
Roucou
,
N.
,
Helene
,
M.
, and
Frene
,
J.
,
2003
, “
Theoretical Analysis of the Incompressible Laminar Flow in a Macro-Roughness Cell
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
125
(2), pp.
309
318
.10.1115/1.1506328
21.
Billy
,
F.
,
Arghir
,
M.
, and
Pineau
,
G.
,
2006
, “
Navier–-Stokes Analysis of a Regular Two-Dimensional Roughness Pattern Under Turbulent Flow Regime
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
128
(1), pp.
122
130
.10.1115/1.2000271
22.
Kraker
,
A.
,
Ostayen
,
R. A. V.
,
Beek
,
A. V.
, and
Rixen
,
D. J.
,
2007
, “
A Multiscale Method Modeling Surface Texture Effects
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
129
(2), pp.
221
230
.10.1115/1.2540156
23.
Ramesh
,
A.
,
Akram
,
W.
,
Mishra
,
S.
,
Cannon
,
A.
,
Polycarpou
,
A.
, and
King
,
W.
,
2013
, “
Friction Characteristics of Microtextured Surfaces Under Mixed and Hydrodynamic Lubrication
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
57
, pp.
170
176
.10.1016/j.triboint.2012.07.020
24.
Brajdic-Mitidieri
,
P.
,
Gosman
,
A.
,
Ioannides
,
E.
, and
Spikes
,
H.
,
2005
, “
CFD Analysis of a Low Friction Pocketed Pad Bearing
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
127
(4), pp.
803
812
.10.1115/1.2032990
25.
Prat
,
M.
,
Plourabou
,
F.
, and
Letalleur
,
N.
,
2002
, “
Averaged Reynolds Equation for Flow Between Rough Surfaces in Sliding Motion
,”
Transp. Porous Media
,
48
, pp.
291
313
.10.1023/A:1015772525610
26.
Jasak
,
H.
,
Jemcov
,
A.
, and
Tukovic
,
Z.
,
2007
, “
OpenFOAM: A C++ library for Complex Physics Simulations
,”
International Workshop on Coupled Methods in Numerical Dynamics
, IUC, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
27.
Jasak
,
H.
, and
Tukovic
,
Z.
,
2007
, “
Automatic Mesh Motion for the Unstructured Finite Volume Method
,”
Trans. FAMENA
,
30
(
2
), pp.
1
18
.
28.
Jasak
,
H.
, and
Rusche
,
H.
,
2009
, “
Dynamic Mesh Handling in OpenFOAM
,”
Proceeding of the 47th Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition
, Orlando, FL.
29.
Löhner
,
R.
, and
Yang
,
C.
,
1996
, “
Improved ALE Mesh Velocities for Moving Bodies
,”
Commun. Num. Meth. Eng.
,
12
, pp.
599
608
.10.1002/(SICI)1099-0887(199610)12:10<599::AID-CNM1>3.0.CO;2-Q
30.
Hu
,
J.
, and
Leutheusser
,
H.
,
1997
, “
Micro-Inertia Effects in Laminar Thin-Film Flow Past a Sinusoidal Boundary
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
119
(1), pp.
211
216
.10.1115/1.2832462
You do not currently have access to this content.