A proper understanding of the processes of friction and wear can only be reached through a detailed study of the contact interface. Empirical laws, such as Archard's, are often used in numerical models. They give good results over a limited range of conditions when their coefficients are correctly set, but they cannot be predicted: any significant change of conditions requires a new set of experimental coefficients. In this paper, a new method, the use of discrete element models (DEMs), is proposed in order to tend to predictable models. As an example, a generic biphasic friction material is modeled, of the type used in aeronautical or automotive brake systems. Micro-scale models are built in order to study material damage and wear under tribological stress. The models show what could be achieved by these numerical methods in tribological studies and how they can reproduce the behavior and mechanisms seen with real-life friction materials without any empirical law or parameter.

References

References
1.
Berthier
,
Y.
,
2001
, “
Background on Friction and Wear
,”
Handbook of Materials Behavior Models
,
Lematre
, London, pp.
676
699
.
2.
Archard
,
J. F.
,
1953
, “
Contact and Rubbing of Flat Surfaces
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
,
24
(
8
), pp.
981
988
.10.1063/1.1721448
3.
Rhee
,
S.
,
1970
, “
Wear Equation for Polymers Sliding Against Metal Surfaces
,”
Wear
,
16
(
6
), pp.
431
445
.10.1016/0043-1648(70)90170-5
4.
Barwell
,
T.
,
1957
, “
Wear of Metals
,”
Wear
,
1
, pp.
317
322
.10.1016/0043-1648(58)90004-8
5.
Chongyi
,
C.
,
Chengguo
,
W.
, and
Ying
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Study on Numerical Method to Predict Wheel/Rail Profile Evolution Due to Wear
,”
Wear
,
269
, pp.
167
173
.10.1016/j.wear.2009.12.031
6.
Lee
,
J.
,
Xu
,
G.
, and
Liang
,
H.
,
2001
, “
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Friction and Wear Behaviour of Polycarbonate
,”
Wear
,
251
(
1–12
), pp.
1541
1556
.10.1016/S0043-1648(01)00788-8
7.
Agelet De Saracibar
,
C.
,
1999
, “
On The Numerical Modeling of Frictional Wear Phenomena
,”
Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng.
,
177
, pp.
401
426
.10.1016/S0045-7825(98)00390-9
8.
Torrance
,
A.
,
2005
, “
A Method for Calculating Boundary Friction and Wear
,”
Wear
,
258
(
5–6
), pp.
924
934
.10.1016/j.wear.2004.09.074
9.
AbuBakar
,
A.
and
Ouyang
,
H.
,
2008
, “
Wear Prediction of Friction Material and Brake Squeal Using the Finite Element Method
,”
Wear
,
264
(
11–12
), pp.
1069
1076
.10.1016/j.wear.2007.08.015
10.
Gallego
,
L.
,
Fulleringer
,
B.
,
Deyber
,
S.
, and
Nélias
,
D.
,
2010
, “
Multiscale Computation of Fretting Wear at the Blade/Disk Interface
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
43
(
4
), pp.
708
718
.10.1016/j.triboint.2009.10.011
11.
Gallego
,
L.
,
Nélias
,
D.
, and
Deyber
,
S.
,
2010
, “
A Fast and Efficient Contact Algorithm for Fretting Problems Applied to Fretting Modes I, II and III
,”
Wear
,
268
(
1–2
), pp.
208
222
.10.1016/j.wear.2009.07.019
12.
Jourdan
,
F.
,
2010
, “
A Numerical Model for Multidirectional Wear
,”
Wear
,
268
, pp.
1380
1386
.10.1016/j.wear.2010.02.012
13.
Berthier
,
Y.
,
Godet
,
M.
, and
Brendle
,
M.
,
1989
, “
Velocity Accommodation in Friction
,”
STLE Tribol. Trans.
,
32
(
4
), pp.
490
496
.10.1080/10402008908981917
14.
Sun
,
Y.
,
1990
, “
Etude mécanique des couches minces en tribologie: une approche numérique
,” Ph.D. thesis, INSA, Lyon.
15.
Higgs
,
C.
and
Tichy
,
J.
,
2004
, “
Granular Flow Lubrication: Continuum Modeling of Shear Behavior
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
126
(3), pp.
499
509
.10.1115/1.1691437
16.
Muller
,
M.
and
Ostermeyer
,
G.
,
2007
, “
A Cellular Automaton Model to Describe the Three-Dimensional Friction and Wear Mechanism of Brake Systems
,”
Wear
,
263
, pp.
1175
1188
.10.1016/j.wear.2006.12.022
17.
Dimitriev
,
A.
,
Osterle
,
W.
, and
Kloss
,
H.
,
2008
, “
Numerical Simulation of Typical Contact Situations of Brake Friction Materials
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
41
, pp.
1
8
.10.1016/j.triboint.2007.04.001
18.
Dmitriev
,
A.
,
Smolin
,
A.
,
Popov
, V
.
, and
Psakhie
,
S.
,
2009
, “
A Multilevel Simulation of Friction and Wear by Numerical Methods of Discrete Mechanics and a Phenomenological Theory
,”
Phys. Mesomech.
,
12
(
3–4
), pp.
11
19
.10.1016/j.physme.2009.03.002
19.
Fillot
,
N.
,
Iordanoff
,
I.
, and
Berthier
,
Y.
,
2004
, “
A Granular Dynamic Model for the Degradation of Material
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
126
(
3
), pp.
606
614
.10.1115/1.1705666
20.
Renouf
,
M.
,
Saulot
,
A.
, and
Berthier
,
Y.
,
2006
, “
Third Body Flow During a Wheel/Rail Interaction
,”
Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Computational Mechanics Solids
.
21.
Godet
,
M.
,
1984
, “
The Third-Body Approach: A Mechanical View of Wear
,”
Wear
,
100
(
1–3
), pp.
437
452
.10.1016/0043-1648(84)90025-5
22.
Osterle
,
W.
,
Dorfel
,
I.
,
Prietzel
,
C.
,
Roocha
,
H.
,
Cristol-Bulthé
,
A.-L.
,
C.-B.
,
Degallaix
,
G.
, and
Desplanques
,
Y.
,
2009
, “
A Comprehensive Microscopic Study of Third Body Formation at the Interface Between a Brake Pad and Brake Disc During the Final Stage of a Pin-on-Disc Test
,”
Wear
,
267
, pp.
781
789
.10.1016/j.wear.2008.11.023
23.
Kasem
,
H.
,
Bonnamy
,
S.
,
Rousseau
,
B.
,
Estrade-Szwackopf
,
H.
,
Berthier
,
Y.
, and
Jacquemard
,
P.
,
2007
, “
Interdependence Between Wear Process, Size of Detached Particles and CO2 Production During Carbon/Carbon Composite Friction
,”
Wear
,
263
, pp.
1220
1229
.10.1016/j.wear.2007.01.077
24.
Elrod
,
H.
and
Brewe
,
D.
,
1992
, “
Numerical Experiments With Flows of Elongated Granules
,”
Tribology Ser.
,
21
, pp.
219
-
226
.10.1016/S0167-8922(08)70527-3
25.
Jerier
,
J.
and
Molinari
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Normal Contact Between Rough Surfaces by the Discrete Element Method
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
47
(
0
), pp.
1
8
.10.1016/j.triboint.2011.08.016
26.
Moreau
,
J. J.
,
1988
, “
Unilateral Contact and Dry Friction in Finite Freedom Dynamics
,”
Non Smooth Mechanics and Applications
(CISM Courses and Lectures), Vol.
302
,
J.
Moreau
and
e. P.-D.
Panagiotopoulos
, eds.,
Springer-Verlag
,
Wien/New York
, pp.
1
82
.
27.
Jean
,
M.
,
1999
, “
The NonSmooth Contact Dynamics Method
,”
Comput. Methods Appl. Math. Eng.
,
177
, pp.
235
-
257
.10.1016/S0045-7825(98)00383-1
28.
Radjai
,
F.
,
Jean
,
M.
,
Moreau
,
J.-J.
, and
Roux
,
S.
,
1996
, “
Force Distributions in Dense Two-Dimensional Granular Systems
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
,
77
(
2
), pp.
264
277
.10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.274
29.
Cao
,
H.-P.
,
Renouf
,
M.
,
Dubois
,
F.
, and
Berthier
,
Y.
,
2011
, “
Coupling Continuous and Discontinuous Descriptions to Model First Body Deformation in Third Body Flows
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
133
(
4
), p.
041601
.10.1115/1.4004881
30.
Renouf
,
M.
and
Berthier
,
Y.
,
2011
, “
Numerical Modeling of Heat Production and Transmission
,”
Discrete Numerical Modeling of Granular Materials
,
Lavoisier
, Paris, France, pp.
381
400
.
31.
Renouf
,
M.
,
Cao
,
H.-P.
, and
Nhu
, V.-H
.
,
2011
, “
Multiphysical Modeling of Third-Body Rheology
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
44
(
4
), pp.
417
425
.10.1016/j.triboint.2010.11.017
32.
Renouf
,
M.
,
Dubois
,
F.
, and
Alart
,
P.
,
2004
, “
A Parallel Version of the Non Smooth Contact Dynamics Algorithm Applied to the Simulation of Granular Media
,”
J. Comput. Appl. Math.
,
168
, pp.
375
–38.10.1016/j.cam.2003.05.019
33.
Elices
,
M.
,
Guinea
,
G.
,
Gómez
,
J.
, and
Planas
,
J.
,
2002
, “
The Cohesive Zone Model: Advantages, Limitations and Challenges
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
,
69
(
2
), pp.
137
163
.10.1016/S0013-7944(01)00083-2
34.
De Borst
,
R.
,
2003
, “
Numerical Aspects of Cohesive-Zone Models
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
,
70
, pp.
1743
1757
.10.1016/S0013-7944(03)00122-X
35.
Elices
,
M.
,
Rocco
,
C.
, and
Rosello
,
C.
,
2009
, “
Cohesive Cracks Modelling of a Simple Concrete: Experimental and Numerical Results
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
,
76
, pp.
1398
1410
.10.1016/j.engfracmech.2008.04.010
36.
Pérales
,
F.
,
Bourgeois
,
S.
,
Chrysochoos
,
A.
, and
Monerie
,
Y.
,
2008
, “
Two Field Multibody Method for Periodic Homogenization in Fracture Mechanics of Nonlinear Heterogeneous Materials
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
,
75
(
11
), pp.
3378
3398
.10.1016/j.engfracmech.2007.07.017
37.
Raous
,
M.
,
Cangémi
,
M.
, and
Cocu
,
M.
,
1999
, “
A Consistent Model Coupling Adhesion, Friction, and Unilateral Contact
,”
Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng.
,
177
(
3–4
), pp.
383
399
.10.1016/S0045-7825(98)00389-2
38.
Frémond
,
M.
,
1987
, “
Adhérence des solides
,”
J. Mec. Theor. Appl.
,
6
, pp.
383
407
.
39.
Rognon
,
P.
,
Roux
,
J.-N.
,
Naaim
,
M.
, and
Chevoir
,
F.
,
2008
, “
Dense Flows of Cohesive Granular Materials
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
596
(
1
), pp.
21
47
.10.1017/S0022112007009329
You do not currently have access to this content.