Tungsten sulfide is a transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) with excellent self-lubricating properties, and a potential candidate for coatings for MEMS applications. Its mechanical and tribological properties can be further improved by alloying it with carbon (W-S-C films). These films are commonly manufactured by sputter deposition. The present work investigates the influence of sputtering procedure on the microtribological performance of W-S-C films. For this purpose, carbon was incorporated in the films via three different ways: (1) by using a reactive gas (CH4); (2) by co-sputtering from two separate targets (WS2 and C); and (3) by sputtering from a composite target of graphite embedded with WS2 pellets. The films were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and micro-Raman spectroscopy (RS). Reciprocating wear tests were performed on a microtribometer with steel balls as counterbodies. The worn surfaces were investigated with white light confocal microscopy, RS, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that the total wear decreases with the hardness of the investigated films and increases with applied load of the tribological test. The friction coefficient at higher load is governed by the roughness of the films. At low load, the presence of graphitic carbon determines the friction coefficient. No transfer of material from the counteracting body is observed.

References

References
1.
Singer
,
I. L.
,
Fayeulle
,
S.
, and
Ehni
,
P. D.
,
1996
, “
Wear Behavior of Triode-Sputtered MoS2 Coatings in Dry Sliding Contact With Steel and Ceramics
,”
Wear
,
195
(
1–2
), pp.
7
20
.10.1016/0043-1648(95)06661-6
2.
Renevier
,
N. M.
,
Lobiondo
,
N.
,
Fox
,
V. C.
,
Teer
,
D. G.
, and
Hampshire
,
J.
,
2000
, “
Performance of MoS2/Metal Composite Coatings Used for Dry Machining and Other Industrial Applications
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
123
(
1
), pp.
84
91
.10.1016/S0257-8972(99)00424-7
3.
Briscoe
,
H. M.
,
1990
, “
Why Space Tribology?
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
23
(
2
), pp.
67
74
.10.1016/0301-679X(90)90040-V
4.
Spalvins
,
T.
,
1974
, “
Structure of Sputtered Molybdenum Disulfide Films at Various Substrate Temperatures
,”
ASLE Trans.
,
17
(
1
), pp.
1
7
.10.1080/05698197408981432
5.
Wahl
,
K. J.
, and
Singer
,
I. L.
,
1995
, “
Quantification of a Lubricant Transfer Process That Enhances the Sliding Life of a MoS2 Coating
,”
Tribol. Lett.
,
1
(
1
), pp.
59
66
.10.1007/BF00157976
6.
Fleischauer
,
P. D.
, and
Bauer
,
R.
,
1988
, “
Chemical and Structural Effects on the Lubrication Properties of Sputtered MoS2 Films
,”
Tribol. Trans.
,
31
(
2
), pp.
239
250
.10.1080/10402008808981819
7.
Singer
,
I. L.
,
1996
, “
Mechanics and Chemistry of Solids in Sliding Contact
,”
Langmuir
,
12
(
19
), pp.
4486
4491
.10.1021/la951056n
8.
Lauwerens
,
W.
,
Wang
,
J.
,
Navratil
,
J.
,
Wieers
,
E.
,
Chaen
,
J.
, and
Stals
,
L. M.
,
2000
, “
Humidity Resistant MoS(x) Films Prepared by Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
131
(
1–3
), pp.
216
221
.10.1016/S0257-8972(00)00796-9
9.
Zhang
,
X.
,
Vitchev
,
R. G.
,
Laurens
,
W.
,
Stals
,
L. M.
,
He
,
J.
, and
Celis
,
J. P.
,
2001
, “
Effect of Crystallographic Orientation on Fretting Wear Behaviour of MoSx Coatings in Dry and Humid Air
,”
Thin Solid Films
,
396
(
1–2
), pp.
69
77
.10.1016/S0040-6090(01)01141-5
10.
Hilton
,
M. R.
,
Bauer
,
R.
, and
Fleischauer
,
P. D.
,
1990
, “
Tribological Performance and Deformation of Sputter-Deposited MoS2 Solid Lubricant Films During Sliding Wear and Indentation Contact
,”
Thin Solid Films
,
188
(
2
), pp.
219
236
.10.1016/0040-6090(90)90285-L
11.
Seitzman
,
L. E.
,
Bolster
,
R. N.
,
Singer
,
I. L.
, and
Wegand
,
J. C.
,
1995
, “
Relationship of Endurance to Microstructure of IBAD MoS2 Coatings
,”
Tribol. Trans.
,
38
(
2
), pp.
445
451
.10.1080/10402009508983427
12.
Shtansky
,
D. V.
,
Lobova
,
T. A.
,
Fominski
,
V. Yu.
,
Kulinich
,
S. A.
,
Lyasotsky
,
I. V.
,
Petzhik
,
M. I.
,
Levashov
,
E. A.
, and
Moore
,
J. J.
,
2004
, “
Structure and Tribological Properties of WSex, WSex/TiN, WSex/TiCN and WSex/TiSiN Coatings
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
183
(
2–3
), pp.
328
336
.10.1016/j.surfcoat.2003.09.047
13.
Watanabe
,
S.
,
Noshiro
,
J.
, and
Miyake
,
S.
,
2004
, “
Tribological Characteristics of WS2/MoS2 Solid Lubricating Multilayer Films
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
183
(
2–3
), pp.
347
351
.10.1016/j.surfcoat.2003.09.063
14.
Kubart
,
T.
,
Polcar
,
T.
,
Kopecky
,
L.
,
Novak
,
R.
, and
Novakova
,
D.
,
2005
, “
Temperature Dependence of Tribological Properties of MoS2 and MoSe2 Coatings
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
193
(
1–3 Spec. Iss.
), pp.
230
233
.10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.08.146
15.
Nossa
,
A.
, and
Cavaleiro
,
A.
,
2001
, “
The Influence of the Addition of C and N on the Wear Behaviour of W-S-C/N Coatings
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
142–144
, pp.
984
991
.10.1016/S0257-8972(01)01249-X
16.
Nossa
,
A.
, and
Cavaleiro
,
A.
,
2003
, “
Mechanical Behaviour of W-S-N and W-S-C Sputtered Coatings Deposited With a Ti Interlayer
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
163–164
, pp.
552
560
.10.1016/S0257-8972(02)00622-9
17.
Sumomogi
,
T.
,
Hieda
,
K.
,
Endo
,
T.
, and
Kuwahara
,
K.
,
1998
, “
Influence of Atmosphere Humidity on Tribological Properties in Scanning Probe Microscope Observation
,”
Appl. Phys. A
,
66
(
Suppl. 1
), pp.
299
303
.10.1007/s003390051150
18.
Santos
,
L. V.
,
Trava-Airoldi
,
V. J.
,
Iha
,
K.
,
Corat
,
E. J.
, and
Salvatori
,
M. C.
,
2001
, “
Diamond-Like-Carbon and Molybdenum Disulfide Nanotribology Studies Using Atomic Force Measurements
,”
Diam. Rel. Mater.
,
10
(
3–7
), pp.
1049
1052
.10.1016/S0925-9635(00)00394-0
19.
Sheehan
,
P. E.
, and
Lieber
,
C. M.
,
1996
, “
Nanotribology and Nanofabrication of MoO3 Structures by Atomic Force Microscopy
,”
Science
,
272
(
5265
), pp.
1158
1161
.10.1126/science.272.5265.1158
20.
Kim
,
Y.
,
Huang
,
J. L.
, and
Lieber
,
C. M.
,
1991
, “
Characterization of Nanometer Scale Wear and Oxidation of Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Lubricants by Atomic Force Microscopy
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
59
(
26
), pp.
3404
3406
.10.1063/1.105689
21.
Tomala
,
A.
,
Pauschitz
,
A.
,
Roy
,
M.
,
Evaristo
,
M.
, and
Cavaleiro
,
A.
,
2011
, “
Influence of Carbon Content on the Nanotribology of W-S-C Films
,”
Int. J. Surf. Sci. Eng.
,
5
(
1
), pp.
3
19
.10.1504/IJSURFSE.2011.039987
22.
Cohen
,
S. R.
,
Feldman
,
Y.
,
Cohen
,
H.
, and
Tenne
,
R.
,
1999
, “
Nanotribology of Novel Metal Dichalcogenides
,”
Appl. Surf. Sci.
,
144–145
, pp.
603
607
.10.1016/S0169-4332(98)00874-5
23.
Zhang
,
X.
, and
Celis
,
J. P.
,
2003
, “
Nanotribology of MoSx Coatings Investigated by Oscillating lateral Force Microscopy
,”
Appl. Surf. Sci.
,
206
(
1–4
), pp.
110
118
.10.1016/S0169-4332(02)01192-3
24.
Nossa
,
A.
, and
Cavalerio
,
A.
,
2004
, “
Chemical and Physical Characterization of C(N)-Doped W-S Sputtered Films
,”
J. Mater. Res.
,
19
(
8
), pp.
2356
2365
.10.1557/JMR.2004.0293
25.
Koch
,
T.
,
Evaristo
,
M.
,
Pauschitz
,
A.
,
Roy
,
M.
, and
Cavaleiro
,
A.
,
2009
, “
Nanoindentation and Nanoscratch Behaviour of Reactive Sputtered Deposited W-S-C Film
,”
Thin Solid Films
,
518
(
1
), pp.
185
193
.10.1016/j.tsf.2009.06.027
26.
Roy
,
M.
,
Koch
,
T.
, and
Pauschitz
,
A.
,
2010
, “
The Influence of Sputtering Procedure on Nanoindentation and Nanoscratch Behaviour of W-S-C Film
,”
Appl. Surf. Sci.
,
256
(
22
), pp.
6850
6858
.10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.04.100
27.
Oliver
,
W. C.
, and
Pharr
,
G. M.
,
1992
, “
Improved Technique for Determining Hardness and Elastic Modulus Using Load and Displacement Sensing Indentation Experiments
,”
J. Mater. Res.
,
7
(
6
), pp.
1564
1580
.10.1557/JMR.1992.1564
28.
Knight
,
D. S.
, and
White
,
W. B.
,
1989
, “
Characterization of Diamond Films by Raman Spectroscopy
,”
J. Mater. Res.
,
4
(
2
), pp.
385
393
.10.1557/JMR.1989.0385
29.
Okada
,
K.
,
Kanda
,
K.
,
Komatsu
,
S.
, and
Matsumoto
,
S.
,
2000
, “
Effect of the Excitation Wavelength on Raman Scattering of Microcrystalline Diamond Prepared in a Low Pressure Inductively Coupled Plasma
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
,
88
(
3
), pp.
1674
1678
.10.1063/1.373870
30.
Polcar
,
T.
,
Evaristo
,
M.
, and
Cavaleiro
,
A.
,
2007
, “
Comparative Study of the Tribological Behaviour of Self-Lubricating W-S-C and Mo-Se-C Sputtered Coatings
,”
Proc. Joint European Conference on Tribology, Slovenian Society for Tribology
,
Ljubljana, Slovenia
, pp.
505
515
.
31.
Moulder
,
J. F.
,
Stickel
,
W. F.
,
Sobol
,
P. E.
, and
Bomben
,
K. D.
,
1992
,
Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
,
Perkin-Elmer Corp.
,
Eden Prairie, MN
.
32.
Leezenberg
,
P.
,
Johnston
,
W.
, and
Tyndall
,
G.
,
2001
, “
Chemical Modification of Sputtered Amorphous-Carbon Surfaces
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
,
89
(
6
), pp.
3498
3507
.10.1063/1.1338989
33.
Sinha
,
S. K.
,
Sirota
,
E. B.
,
Garoff
,
S.
, and
Stanley.
,
H. B.
,
1988
, “
X-Ray and Neutron Scattering From Rough Surfaces
,”
Phys. Rev. B
,
38
(
4
), pp.
2297
2311
.10.1103/PhysRevB.38.2297
34.
Hayward
,
I. P.
,
Singer
,
I. L.
, and
Seitzman
,
L. E.
,
1992
, “
Effect of Roughness on the Friction of Diamond on CVD Diamond Coatings
,”
Wear
,
157
(
2
), pp.
215
227
.10.1016/0043-1648(92)90063-E
35.
Prasad
,
S.
, and
Zabinski
,
J.
,
1997
, “
Super Slippery Solids
,”
Nature
,
387
(
6635
), pp.
761
763
.10.1038/42820
36.
Tomala
,
A.
,
Roy
,
M.
, and
Franek
,
F.
,
2010
, “
Nanotribology of Mo-Se-C Films
,”
Philos. Mag.
,
90
(
29
), pp.
3827
3843
.10.1080/14786435.2010.495041
37.
Roy
,
M.
,
2006
,
Proc. Int. Conference on Advances in Materials and Materials Processing
,
Kharagpur, India
, p.
202
.
38.
Bowden
,
F. P.
, and
Tabor
,
D.
,
1964
,
The Friction and Lubrication of Solids, Part 2
,
Clarendon
,
Oxford
.
39.
Johnson
,
K. L.
,
Kendall
,
K.
, and
Roberts
,
A. D.
,
1971
, “
Surface Energy and the Contact of Elastic Solids
,”
Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A
,
324
(
1558
), pp.
301
313
.10.1098/rspa.1971.0141
40.
Horn
,
R. G.
,
Israelachvili
,
J. N.
, and
Pribac
,
F.
,
1987
, “
Measurement of the Deformation and Adhesion of Solids in Contact
,”
J. Colloid Interface Sci.
,
115
(
2
), pp.
480
492
.10.1016/0021-9797(87)90065-8
41.
Hertz
,
H.
,
1881
, “
On the Contact of Elastic Solids
,”
J. Reine Angew. Math.
,
92
, pp.
156
171
. Translated and reprinted in English in “Hertz's Miscellaneous Papers,” Macmillan & Co., 1896, London, UK.
42.
Bridgman
,
P. W.
,
1937
, “
Shearing Phenomena at High Pressure Particularly in Inorganic Compounds
,”
Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci.
,
71
, p.
387
.10.2307/20023239
You do not currently have access to this content.