An energy model of stabilized friction and wear is presented. Heating of a definite mass of surface material to the flash point, in consideration of the mass’s specific heat and wear, is assumed to provide the basis for thermal processes. An energy balance is presented in the form of a first law of thermodynamics formula for open systems. Two new magnitudes, referred to as complex systemic constants C and D, are developed and their physical meaning is interpreted. These complex systemic constants are subsequently employed to describe the tribological system. Among other magnitudes in the model, density of thermal dissipation and enthalpy flux, power density of mechanical dissipation, wear severity, and specific work of wear are described. Friction and wear testing results [Ciecieląg, 1994, “Energy Conditions of Metal Resistance to Tribological Wear,” Ph.D. thesis, Świętokrzyska Technical University, Kielce; Żurowski, 1996, “Energy Aspect of Increasing Wear-Resistance of Metals in the Process of Engineering Dry Friction,” Ph.D. thesis, Świętokrzyska Technical University, Kielce; Sadowski and Żurowski, 1992, “Thermodynamic Aspects of Metals' Wear-Resistance,” Tribology and Lubrication Engineering, 3, pp. 152–159] are employed to describe, in quantitative terms, selected tribological systems on the basis of the presented thermodynamic model. A method of determining the complex systemic constants C and D is developed. Specific work of wear, wear severity, probability of emergence of a flux of tribological wear products, and relation of worn mass to heated mass and flash temperature as functions of temperature are defined. This paper concludes with application, significance, and advantages of the complex systemic constants C and D, and phenomena arising in frictional contact between two metals.

1.
Dubbinin
,
A. D.
, 1963,
Energy of Friction and Wear of Machine Parts
,
Mašgiz
,
Moscow, Kiev
, pp.
1
138
.
2.
Kuznecov
,
V. D.
, 1947,
Solid Body Physics
,
Krasnoje Znamja
,
Tomsk
, Vol.
4
, pp.
1
539
.
3.
Kuznecov
,
V. D.
, 1977,
Physics of Metal and Crystal Cutting and Friction
,
Science
,
Moscow
, pp.
1
310
.
4.
Kosteckij
,
B. I.
, and
Linnik
,
J. I.
, 1968, “
Research Into Energy Balance of Inner Metal Friction
,”
Machine Science
,
5
, pp.
82
93
.
5.
Kosteckij
,
B. I.
, 1970,
Friction, Lubrication and Wear in Machines
,
Engineering
,
Kiev
, pp.
1
396
.
6.
Fleischer
,
G.
, 1976, “
Energy Balancing of Solid Body Friction As the Basis For Energy Wear Description
,”
Lubr. Eng.
0024-7154,
8
, pp.
225
230
;
Fleischer
,
G.
, 1976,
Lubr. Eng.
0024-7154,
9
, pp.
271
–275,
279
.
7.
Fleischer
,
G.
,
Gröger
,
H.
, and
Thum
,
H.
, 1980,
Wear and Reliability
,
VEB Verlag Technik
,
Berlin
, pp.
1
244
.
8.
Fedorov
,
V. V.
, 1979,
Thermodynamic Aspects of Solid Body Firmness and Fragility
,
Fan
,
Tashkent
, pp.
1
167
.
9.
Bessonov
,
N. A.
, 1941, “
Relations of Grinding Work, Heat and Superficial Energy at Abrasion of Rock Salt Crystals Along a Variety of Surfaces
,” Ph.D. thesis, Siberian Institute of Metallurgy, Novokuznetsk.
10.
Klamecki
,
B. E.
, 1980, “
Wear—An Entropy Production Model
,”
Wear
0043-1648,
58
(
2
), pp.
325
330
.
11.
Rabinowicz
,
E.
, 1964, “
Practical Uses of the Surface Energy Criterion
,”
Wear
0043-1648,
7
, pp.
9
22
.
12.
Ryžkin
,
A. A.
,
Filipčuk
,
A. I.
,
Šučev
,
K. G.
, and
Klimov
,
M. M.
, 1982, “
Thermodynamic Method of Evaluating Wear Severity of Fragile Materialism
,”
Friction Wear
0202-4977,
5
, pp.
867
872
.
13.
Ryžkin
,
A. A.
,
Dmitrijev
,
V. S.
,
Klimov
,
M. M.
,
Šučev
,
K. G.
, and
Bokov
,
A. I.
, 1996, “
Physical Fundamentals of Material Breakage Treatment
,” Izdatel’skij centr DGTU, Rostov na Donu, pp.
1
352
.
14.
Tross
,
A.
, 1966,
On the Essence and Mechanism of Resistance
,
Eigenverlag
,
München und Zell am
, pp.
1
206
.
15.
Sadowski
,
J.
, 2001,
Peculiarities of Thermodynamic Processes Accompanying Friction of Metals
,
Technical University of Radom Publications
,
Radom
, pp.
1
230
.
16.
Sadowski
,
J.
, 2002, “
Thermodynamic Aspects of Tribological Processes
,”
Tribology
0301-679X,
3
, pp.
999
1013
.
17.
Sadowski
,
J.
, 2002, “
Thermodynamic Theory of Friction and Wear
,”
Tribology and Lubrication Engineering
,
6
, pp.
41
47
.
18.
Sadowski
,
J.
, 2003,
The Thermodynamic Theory of Friction and Wear
,
Technical University of Radom Publications
,
Radom
, pp.
1
56
.
19.
Abdel-Aal
,
H. A.
, 2005, “
On the Role of Intrinsic Material Response in Failure of Tribo Systems
,”
Wear
0043-1648,
259
(
7–12
), pp.
1372
1381
.
20.
Shakhvorostov
,
D.
,
Pöhlmann
,
K.
, and
Scherge
,
M.
, 2004, “
An Energetic Approach to Friction, Wear and Temperature
,”
Wear
0043-1648,
257
(
1–2
), pp.
124
130
.
21.
Maciąg
,
M.
, 2008,
Thermodynamic Description of Stabilised Friction and Associated Processes
,
Technical University of Radom
,
Radom
, pp.
1
131
.
22.
Maciąg
,
M.
, 2006, “
Thermodynamic Model of Stabilised Friction and Wear Process
,”
Tribology
0301-679X,
2
(
206
), pp.
93
106
.
23.
Maciąg
,
M.
, 2006, “
Complex Constants Characterising the Tribological System
,”
Tribology
0301-679X,
5
(
209
), pp.
67
77
.
24.
Maciąg
,
M.
, 2006, “
Thermodynamic Analysis of Characteristics of Tribological Systems in the Examples of Selected Experimental Testing
,”
ZEM
,
4
(
148
), pp.
7
21
.
25.
Maciąg
,
M.
, 2007, “
Thermodynamic Analysis of Characteristics of Tribological Systems in the Examples of Selected Experimental Testing, P. II
,”
ZEM
,
3
(
127
), pp.
37
49
.
26.
Ciecieląg
,
J.
, 1994, “
Energy Conditions of Metal Resistance to Tribological Wear
,” Ph.D. thesis, Świętokrzyska Technical University, Kielce.
27.
Żurowski
,
W.
, 1996, “
Energy Aspect of Increasing Wear-Resistance of Metals in the Process of Engineering Dry Friction
,” Ph.D. thesis, Świętokrzyska Technical University, Kielce.
28.
Sadowski
,
J.
, and
Żurowski
,
W.
, 1992, “
Thermodynamic Aspects of Metals’ Wear-Resistance
,”
Tribology and Lubrication Engineering
,
3
, pp.
152
159
.
29.
Sadowski
,
J.
, 1990, “
Attempts at Maximising Wear-Resistance of Solid Bodies
,”
Tribology and Lubrication Engineering
,
3
, pp.
171
174
.
30.
Maciąg
,
M.
, 2003, “
Thermodynamic Model of Abrasive Wear of Metals
,”
Tribology
0301-679X,
1
(
187
), pp.
145
158
.
31.
Volk
,
W.
, 1965,
Applied Statistics for Engineers
,
WNT
,
Warsaw
, pp.
1
320
.
32.
Sarnowicz
,
L.
, 1999, “
Analysis of Metal Friction Process on the Basis of Calorimetric Testing
,” Ph.D. thesis, Świętokrzyska Technical University, Kielce.
33.
Szczerek
,
M.
, 1997,
Methodological Issues of Systemising Experimental Tribological Testing
,
Publications of Terotechnology Institute
,
Radom
, pp.
1
245
.
You do not currently have access to this content.