This paper presents the results of an experimental study on load-independent (spin) power losses of spur gear pairs operating under dip-lubricated conditions. The experiments were performed over a wide range of operating speed, temperature, oil levels, and key gear design parameters to quantify their influence on spin power losses. The measurements indicate that the static oil level, rotational speed, and face width of gears have a significant impact on spin power losses compared with other parameters such as oil temperature, gear module, and the direction of gear rotation. A physics-based gear pair spin power loss formulation that was proposed in a companion paper (Seetharaman and Kahraman, 2009, “Load-Independent Spin Power Losses of a Spur Gear Pair: Model Formulation,” ASME J. Tribol., 131, p. 022201) was used to simulate these experiments. Direct comparisons between the model predictions and measurements are provided at the end to demonstrate that the model is capable of predicting the measured spin power loss values as well as the measured parameter sensitivities reasonably well.

1.
Anderson
,
N. E.
, and
Loewenthal
,
S. H.
, 1981, “
Effect of Geometry and Operating Conditions on Spur Gear System Power Loss
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
103
, pp.
151
159
. 1050-0472
2.
Anderson
,
N. E.
, and
Loewenthal
,
S. H.
, 1982, “
Design of Spur Gears for Improved Efficiency
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
104
, pp.
767
774
. 1050-0472
3.
Ikejo
,
K.
, and
Nagamura
,
K.
, 2003, “
Power Loss of Spur Gear Drive Lubricated With Traction Oil
,”
Proceedings of the DETC’3, ASME 2003 Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
, Chicago, IL.
4.
Diab
,
Y.
,
Ville
,
F.
,
Velex
,
P.
, and
Changenet
,
C.
, 2004, “
Windage Losses in High Speed Gears—Preliminary Experimental and Theoretical Results
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
0161-8458,
126
, pp.
903
908
.
5.
Mizutani
,
H.
, 1999, “
Power Loss of Long Addendum Spur Gears With Large Chamfer on Tooth Tip-Ends
,”
Fourth World Congress on Gearing and Power Transmission
, Paris, France.
6.
Changenet
,
C.
, and
Velex
,
P.
, 2007, “
A Model for the Prediction of Churning Losses in Geared Transmissions—Preliminary Results
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
0161-8458,
129
, pp.
128
133
.
7.
Denny
,
C. M.
, 1998, “
Mesh Friction in Gearing
,”
AGMA Fall Technical Meeting
, Paper No. 98FTM2.
8.
Pedrero
,
J. I.
, 1999, “
Determination of the Efficiency of Cylindrical Gear Sets
,”
Fourth World Congress on Gearing and Power Transmission
, Paris, France.
9.
Michlin
,
Y.
, and
Myunster
,
V.
, 2002, “
Determination of Power Losses in Gear Transmissions With Rolling and Sliding Friction Incorporated
,”
Mech. Mach. Theory
0094-114X,
37
, pp.
167
174
.
10.
Höhn
,
B. -R.
,
Michaelis
,
K.
, and
Wimmer
,
A.
, 2005, “
Low Loss Gears
,” AGMA Technical Paper No. 05FTM11.
11.
Anderson
,
N. E.
, and
Loewenthal
,
S. H.
, 1986, “
Efficiency of Nonstandard and High Contact Ratio Involute Spur Gears
,”
ASME J. Mech., Transm., Autom. Des.
0738-0666,
108
, pp.
119
126
.
12.
Heingartner
,
P.
, and
Mba
,
D.
, 2003, “
Determining Power Losses in the Helical Gear Mesh; Case Study
,”
Proceedings of the DETC’3, ASME 2003 Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
, Chicago, IL.
13.
Diab
,
Y.
,
Ville
,
F.
, and
Velex
,
P.
, 2006, “
Prediction of Power Losses Due to Tooth Friction in Gears
,”
Tribol. Trans.
1040-2004,
49
, pp.
260
270
.
14.
Dowson
,
D.
, and
Higginson
,
G. R.
, 1964, “
A Theory of Involute Gear Lubrication
,”
Proceedings of the Symposium Organized by the Mechanical Tests of Lubricants Panel of the Institute, Institute of Petroleum, Gear Lubrication
,
Elsevier
,
London
, pp.
8
15
.
15.
Martin
,
K. F.
, 1981, “
The Efficiency of Involute Spur Gears
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
103
, pp.
160
169
. 1050-0472
16.
Simon
,
V.
, 1981, “
Load Capacity and Efficiency of Spur Gears in Regard to Thermo-End Lubrication
,”
International Symposium on Gearing and Power Transmissions
, Tokyo, Japan.
17.
Wu
,
S.
, and
Cheng
,
H. S.
, 1991, “
A Friction Model of Partial-EHL Contacts and Its Application to Power Loss in Spur Gears
,”
Tribol. Trans.
1040-2004,
34
, pp.
398
407
.
18.
Mihalidis
,
A.
,
Bakolas
,
V.
,
Panagiotidis
,
K.
, and
Drivakos
,
N.
, 2002, “
Prediction of the Friction Coefficient of Spur Gear Pairs
,”
VDI-Ber.
0083-5560,
1665
, pp.
705
719
.
19.
Seetharaman
,
S.
, and
Kahraman
,
A.
, 2009, “
Load-Independent Spin Power Losses of a Spur Gear Pair: Model Formulation
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
0742-4787,
131
, p.
022201
.
20.
Diab
,
Y.
,
Ville
,
F.
,
Houjoh
,
H.
,
Sainsot
,
P.
, and
Velex
,
P.
, 2005, “
Experimental and Numerical Investigations on the Air-Pumping Phenomenon in High-Speed Spur and Helical Gears
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C: J. Mech. Eng. Sci.
0954-4062,
219
, pp.
785
800
.
21.
Al-Shibl
,
K.
,
Simmons
,
K.
, and
Eastwick
,
C. N.
, 2007, “
Modeling Gear Windage Power Loss From an Enclosed Spur Gears
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A
0957-6509,
221
(
3
), pp.
331
341
.
22.
Boness
,
R. J.
, 1989, “
Churning Losses of Discs and Gear Running Partially Submerged in Oil
,”
Proceedings of the ASME International Power Transmission and Gearing Conference
, Chicago, IL, pp.
355
359
.
23.
Höhn
,
B. -R.
,
Michaelis
,
K.
, and
Vollmer
,
T.
, 1996, “
Thermal Rating of Gear Drives—Balance Between Power Loss and Heat Dissipation
,” AGMA Technical Paper No. 96FTM8.
24.
Akin
,
L. S.
, and
Mross
,
J. J.
, 1975, “
Theory for the Effect of Windage on the Lubricant Flow in the Tooth Spaces of Spur Gears
,”
ASME J. Eng. Ind.
0022-0817,
97
, pp.
1266
1273
.
25.
Pechersky
,
M. J.
, and
Wittbrodt
,
M. J.
, 1987, “
An Analysis of Fluid Flow Between Meshing Spur Gear Teeth
,” MS thesis, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA.
26.
Naruse
,
C.
, and
Haizuka
,
S.
, 1978, “
Limiting Loads for Scoring and Coefficient of Friction on a Disk-Machine (Effects of Lubricating Oil, Specific Sliding and Sliding Velocity in the Case of Steel/Steel)
,”
Bull. JSME
,
21
, pp.
1311
1317
. 0021-3764
27.
Naruse
,
C.
,
Haizuka
,
S.
,
Nemoto
,
R.
, and
Kurokawa
,
K.
, 1986, “
Studies on Frictional Loss, Temperature Rise and Limiting Load for Scoring of Spur Gear
,”
Bull. JSME
,
29
, pp.
600
608
. 0021-3764
28.
Naruse
,
C.
,
Nemoto
,
R.
,
Haizuka
,
S.
, and
Takahashi
,
H.
, 1991, “
Influences of Tooth Profile in Frictional Loss and Scoring Strength in the Case of Spur Gears
,”
JSME International Conference on Motion and Power Transmissions
, Hiroshima, Japan, pp.
1078
1083
.
29.
Yoshizaki
,
M.
,
Naruse
,
C.
, and
Haizuka
,
S.
, 1991, “
Study on Frictional Loss of Spur Gears (Concerning the Influence of Tooth Form, Load, Tooth Surface Roughness, and Lubricating Oil)
,”
Tribol. Trans.
1040-2004,
34
, pp.
138
146
.
30.
Coy
,
J.
,
Mitchell
,
A.
, and
Hamrock
,
B.
, 1984, “
Transmission Efficiency Measurements and Correlations With Physical Characteristics of the Lubricant
,” NASA Technical Memorandum ADA No. 149179.
31.
Martins
,
R.
,
Seabra
,
J.
,
Brito
,
A.
,
Seyfert
,
Ch.
,
Luther
,
R.
, and
Igartua
,
A.
, 2006, “
Friction Coefficient in FZG Gears Lubricated With Industrial Gear Oils: Biodegradable Ester vs. Mineral Oil
,”
Tribol. Int.
0301-679X,
39
, pp.
512
521
.
32.
Xiao
,
L.
,
Amini
,
N.
, and
Rosen
,
B. -G.
, 2001, “
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Surface Topography on Rough Friction in Gears
,”
JSME International Conference on Motion and Power Transmission
, Fukuoka, Japan, pp.
547
552
.
33.
Britton
,
R. D.
,
Elcoate
,
C. D.
,
Alanou
,
M. P.
,
Evans
,
H. P.
, and
Snidle
,
R. W.
, 2000, “
Effect of Surface Finish on Gear Tooth Friction
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
0742-4787,
122
, pp.
354
360
.
34.
Dawson
,
P. H.
, 1984, “
Windage Losses in Larger High-Speed Gears
,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A: Power and Process Engineering, 198(
1
), pp.
51
59
.
35.
Ariura
,
Y.
,
Ueno
,
T.
, and
Sunaga
,
T.
, 1973, “
The Lubricant Churning Loss in Spur Gear Systems
,”
Bull. JSME
,
16
, pp.
881
890
. 0021-3764
36.
Daily
,
J.
, and
Nece
,
R.
, 1960, “
Chamber Dimension Effects of Induced Flow and Frictional Resistance of Enclosed Rotating Disks
,”
ASME J. Basic Eng.
,
82
, pp.
217
232
. 0021-9223
37.
Mann
,
R.
, and
Marston
,
C.
, 1961, “
Friction Drag on Bladed Disks in Housings as a Function of Reynolds Number, Axial and Radial Clearance, and Blade Aspect Ratio and Solidity
,”
ASME J. Basic Eng.
,
83
, pp.
719
723
. 0021-9223
38.
Terekhov
,
A. S.
, 1991, “
Basic Problems of Heat Calculation of Gear Reducers
,”
JSME International Conference on Motion and Power Transmissions
, Hiroshima, Japan,
490
495
.
39.
Luke
,
P.
, and
Olver
,
A. V.
, 1999, “
A Study of Churning Losses in Dip-Lubricated Spur Gears
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A
0957-6509,
213
, pp.
337
346
.
40.
Harris
,
T.
, and
Kotzalas
,
M. N.
, 2007,
Rolling Bearing Analysis, Essential Concepts of Bearing Technology
,
5th ed.
,
Taylor & Francis
,
New York
.
41.
Petry-Johnson
,
T.
,
Kahraman
,
A.
,
Anderson
,
N. E.
, and
Chase
,
D. R.
, 2008, “
An Experimental Investigation of Spur Gear Efficiency
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
1050-0472,
130
,
062601
.
42.
ISO/TR 14179-:2001(E).
You do not currently have access to this content.