Research efforts related to dry particulates in sliding contacts are reviewed. In the tribology community, there are primarily two types of dry particulate lubricants that are studied—granular and powder. Granular lubricants usually refer to dry, cohesionless, hard particles that transfer momentum and accommodate surface velocity differences through shearing and rolling at low shear rates, and collisions at high shear rates. Powder lubricants refer to dry, cohesive, soft particles that accommodate surface velocity differences mostly by adhering to surfaces and shearing in the bulk medium, in a manner similar to hydrodynamic fluids. Spanning the past five decades, this review proposes a classification system for the scientific works in the dry particulate tribology literature in terms of theory, experiments, and numerical simulations. It also suggests that these works can be further categorized based on their tribosystem geometry—annular, parallel, and converging.

1.
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,
H.
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Heshmat
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3.
Heshmat
,
H.
, and
Brewe
,
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, 1995, “
Performance of Powder-Lubricated Journal Bearings With MoS2 Powder—Experimental-Study of Thermal Phenomena
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ASME J. Tribol.
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512
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4.
Heshmat
,
H.
, and
Brewe
,
D. E.
, 1996, “
Performance of a Powder Lubricated Journal Bearing With WS2 Powder: Experimental Study
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ASME J. Tribol.
0742-4787,
118
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484
491
.
5.
Heshmat
,
H.
, and
Heshmat
,
C. A.
, 1999, “
Effect of Slider Geometry on the Performance of a Powder Lubricated Bearing
,”
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6.
Higgs
,
C. F.
, and
Heshmat
,
H.
, 2001, “
Characterization of Pelletized MoS2 Powder Particle Detachment Process
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
0742-4787,
123
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), pp.
455
461
.
7.
Higgs
,
C. F.
,
Heshmat
,
C. A.
, and
Heshmat
,
H. S.
, 1999, “
Comparative Evaluation of MoS2 and WS2 as Powder Lubricants in High Speed, Multi-Pad Journal Bearings
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
0742-4787,
121
(
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), pp.
625
630
.
8.
Farr
,
J. P. G.
, 1975, “
Molybdenum-Disulfide in Lubrication—Review
,”
Wear
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22
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9.
Kaur
,
R. G.
, and
Heshmat
,
H.
, 2002, “
100mm Diameter Self-Contained Solid/Powder Lubricated Auxiliary Bearing Operated at 30,000rpm
,”
Lubr. Eng.
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58
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13
20
.
10.
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,
R. G.
,
Higgs
,
C. F.
, and
Heshmat
,
H.
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,”
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44
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11.
Elrod
,
H. G.
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,”
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,
Butterworth
,
Oxford, England
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12.
Higgs
,
C. F.
, and
Tichy
,
J.
, 2004, “
Granular Flow Lubrication: Continuum Modeling of Shear Behavior
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
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126
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), pp.
499
510
.
13.
Yu
,
C. M.
,
Craig
,
K.
, and
Tichy
,
J.
, 1994, “
Granular Collision Lubrication
,”
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0148-6055,
38
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), pp.
921
936
.
14.
Yu
,
C. M.
, and
Tichy
,
J.
, 1996, “
Granular Collisional Lubrication: Effect of Surface Roughness, Particle Size and Solids Fraction
,”
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39
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), pp.
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546
.
15.
Heshmat
,
H.
, and
Walton
,
J. F.
, 1991, “
Basics of Powder Lubrication in High-Temperature Powder-Lubricated Dampers
,”
Proc. of International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, June 3-6 1991
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ASME
, New York, pp.
372
382
.
16.
Heshmat
,
H.
, and
Walton
,
J. F.
, 1992, “
High-Temperature Powder-Lubricated Dampers for Gas-Turbine Engines
,”
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8
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.
17.
Heshmat
,
H.
, and
Walton
,
J. F.
, 1993, “
The Basics of Powder Lubrication in High-Temperature Powder-Lubricated Dampers
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
0742-4795,
115
(
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), pp.
372
382
.
18.
Fusaro
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R. L.
, 1989, “
Comparison of the Tribological Properties of Fluorinated Cokes and Graphites
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32
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), pp.
121
132
.
19.
Hirata
,
A.
,
Igarashi
,
M.
, and
Kaito
,
T.
, 2004, “
Study on Solid Lubricant Properties of Carbon Onions Produced by Heat Treatment of Diamond Clusters or Particles
,”
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37
(
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), pp.
899
905
.
20.
Heshmat
,
H.
, 1993, “
Rolling and Sliding Characteristics of Powder-Lubricated Ceramics at High-Temperature and Speed
,”
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49
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), pp.
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.
21.
Tsai
,
H. J.
, and
Jeng
,
Y. R.
, 2006, “
Characteristics of Powder Lubricated Finite-Width Journal Bearings: A Hydrodynamic Analysis
,”
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128
(
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), pp.
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357
.
22.
Sawyer
,
W. G.
, and
Tichy
,
J. A.
, 2001, “
Lubrication With Granular Flow: Continuum Theory, Particle Simulations, Comparison With Experiment
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
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123
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), pp.
777
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.
23.
Cizaire
,
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,
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,
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,
T.
,
Martin
,
J. M.
,
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,
L.
,
Margolin
,
A.
, and
Tenne
,
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, 2002, “
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,”
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160
(
2-3
), pp.
282
287
.
24.
Leshchinsky
,
V.
,
Alyoshina
,
E.
,
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M.
,
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,
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,
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,
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,
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,
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, and
Rapoport
,
L.
, 2002, “
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,”
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38
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), pp.
50
57
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25.
Rapoport
,
L.
,
Fleischer
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N.
, and
Tenne
,
R.
, 2005, “
Applications of WS2 (MoS2) Inorganic Nanotubes and Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles for Solid Lubrication and for Structural Nanocomposites
,”
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15
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), pp.
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26.
Rapoport
,
L.
,
Fleischer
,
N.
, and
Tenne
,
R.
, 2005, “
Tribological Applications of WS2 (MoS2) Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles as Solid Lubrication
,”
Proc. of World Tribology Congress III
, Washington, D.C.,
ASME
,
New York
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27.
Rapoport
,
L.
,
Leshchinsky
,
V.
,
Lvovsky
,
M.
,
Lapsker
,
I.
,
Volovik
,
Y.
,
Feldman
,
Y.
,
Popovitz-Biro
,
R.
, and
Tenne
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R.
, 2003, “
Superior Tribological Properties of Powder Materials With Solid Lubricant Nanoparticles
,”
Wear
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255
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), pp.
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800
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28.
Higgs
III,
C. F.
,
Jasti
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V.
,
Racusen
,
C.
,
Heller
,
C.
,
Cohen
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N.
, and
Tichy
,
J.
, 2006, “
On the Behavior of Granular Materials in Rough Wheel Contacts on Mars
,” 10th ASCE Aerospace Division International Conference on Engineering, Construction and Operations in Challenging Environments (Earth & Space 2006), Houston.
29.
Massoudi
,
M.
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Phuoc
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T. X.
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Numerical Solution to the Shearing Flow of Granular Materials Between Two Plates
,”
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30.
Wyszynski
,
M. L.
, and
Bridgwater
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J.
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Effect of Solid Lubricants on Powder Attrition and Breakage
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31.
Heshmat
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, 1992, “
The Quasi-Hydrodynamic Mechanism of Power Lubrication. 1: Lubricant Flow Visualization
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32.
McKeague
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, and
Khonsari
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An Analysis of Powder Lubricated Slider Bearings
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33.
Higgs
,
C. F.
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Tichy
,
J.
, 2004, “
Granular Flow Lubrication: Continuum Modeling of Shear Behavior
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
0742-4787,
126
(
3
), pp.
499
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.
34.
Iordanoff
,
I.
, and
Khonsari
,
M. M.
, 2004, “
Granular lubrication: Toward an Understanding of the Transition Between Kinetic and Quasi-Fluid Regime
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
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), pp.
137
145
.
35.
Jang
,
J. Y.
, and
Khonsari
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On the Granular Lubrication Theory
,”
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36.
Jang
,
J. Y.
, and
Khonsari
,
M. M.
, 2006, “
On the Role of Enduring Contact in Powder Lubrication
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
0742-4787,
128
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), pp.
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.
37.
Jeng
,
Y. R.
, and
Tsai
,
H. J.
, 2005, “
Grain Flow for Rough Surfaces Considering Grain/Grain Collision Elasticity
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
0742-4787,
127
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38.
Khonsari
,
M. M.
, 1997, “
On the Modeling of Multi-Body Interaction Problems in Tribology
,”
Wear
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207
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), pp.
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62
.
39.
Hsu
,
S. M.
, 2004, “
Nano-Lubrication: Concept and Design
,”
Tribol. Int.
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37
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), pp.
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40.
Morrow
,
C. A.
, and
Lovell
,
M. R.
, 2005, “
A Solution for Lightly Loaded Adhesive Rough Surfaces With Application to MEMS
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
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), pp.
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212
.
41.
Heshmat
,
H.
, and
Brewe
,
D. E.
, 1993, “
On the Cognitive Approach Toward Classification of Dry Triboparticulates
,”
20th Leeds Lyon Symposium on Tribology
,
Elsevier
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325
.
42.
Heshmat
,
H.
, and
Brewe
,
D. E.
, 1991, “
On Some Experimental Rheological Aspects of Triboparticulates
,”
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, Lyon, France,
Elsevier
,
Amsterdam, Netherlands
, pp.
357
367
.
43.
Higgs
III,
C. F.
, 2001, “
Particulate Flow Lubrication: Continuum Modeling of Shear Behavior
,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.
44.
Bridgwater
,
J.
, 1984, “
Fluid Effects in Powder Mechanics
,”
Powder Technol.
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37
, pp.
245
254
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45.
Rietema
,
K.
, 1984, “
Powders, What are They?
,”
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37
, pp.
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23
.
46.
Godet
,
M.
,
Berthier
,
Y.
,
Lancaster
,
J.
, and
Vincent
,
L.
, 1991, “
Wear Modeling: How Far Can We Get With First Principles
,”
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.
47.
Niccolini
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E.
, and
Berthier
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, 2005, “
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48.
Erdemir
,
A.
, 1994, “
Crystal Chemistry and Solid Lubricating Properties of the Monochalcogenides Gallium Selenide and Tin Selenide
,”
STLE Tribol. Trans.
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37
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), pp.
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478
.
49.
Kustas
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F. M.
, and
Buchholtz
,
B. W.
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Lubricious-Surface-Silicon-Nitride Rings for High-Temperature Tribological Applications
,”
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39
(
1
), p.
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50.
Rosado
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L.
,
Forster
,
N. H.
, and
Wittberg
,
T. N.
, 2000, “
Solid Lubrication of Silicon Nitride With Cesium-Based Compounds: Part II - Surface Analysis
,”
Tribol. Trans.
1040-2004,
43
(
3
), p.
521
.
51.
Sawyer
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W. G.
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Ziegert
,
J. C.
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Schmitz
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T. L.
, and
Barton
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A.
, 2006, “
In Situ Lubrication With Boric Acid: Powder Delivery of an Environmentally Benign Solid Lubricant
,”
Tribol. Trans.
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49
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2
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52.
Lovell
,
M.
,
Higgs
III,
C. F.
, and
Mobley
,
A. J.
, 2005, “
A Novel Particulate-Fluid Lubricant for Environmentally Benign Forming Processes
,”
Proceedings of the World Tribology Congress III
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53.
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P.
,
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Sawyer
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W. G.
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On the Friction and Wear Performance of Boric Acid Lubricant Combinations in Extended Duration Operations
,”
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54.
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,
K.
,
Brodsky
,
E. E.
, and
Kavehpour
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H. P.
, 2005, “
Tribological Aspects and Fluidity of Dense Granular Flow
,”
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
, November 2005, Orlando, FL.
55.
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,
R.
,
Klausner
,
J. F.
,
Shang
,
H.
, and
Kallman
,
E.
, 1997, “
On the Improved Flowability of Cohesive Powders by Coating With Fine Particles
,”
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56.
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,
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, 2000, “
Concentration Non-Uniformity in Simple Shear Flow of Cohesive Powders
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,
M.
, and
Mehrabadi
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, 2001, “
A Continuum Model for Granular Materials: Considering Dilatancy and the Mohr-Coulomb Criterion
,”
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58.
Tanner
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R. I.
, 1985,
Engineering Rheology
,
1st ed.
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Clarendon Press
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59.
Akers
,
R.
, 1984, “
The Role of Particle Interactions in Powder Mechanics, Papers Presented at a Symposium Held in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, August 29–31, 1983—Introduction
,”
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, and
Heshmat
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H.
, 2002, “
A Review of Recent Approaches for Modeling Solid Third Bodies
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
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61.
Berthier
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,
Godet
,
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, and
Brendle
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M.
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Velocity Accommodation in Friction
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, and
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,
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,
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, and
Godet
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Effect of Machine Rigidity or Degrees of Freedom on the Load-Carrying Capacity of Wear Debris
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65.
Godet
,
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Berthier
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Iordanoff
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,
Seve
,
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Berthier
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Solid Third Body Analysis Using a Discrete Approach: Influence of Adhesion and Particle Size on Macroscopic Properties
,”
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70.
Fillot
,
N.
,
Iordanoff
,
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, and
Berthier
,
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Simulation of Wear Through Mass Balance in a Dry Contact
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
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71.
Wornyoh
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, and
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Self-Replenishing, Self-Repairing Solid Lubrication: Modeling and Experimentation
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ASME
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W. G.
, and
Erdemir
,
A.
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Fractional Coverage Model for the Adsorption and Removal of Gas Species and Application to Superlow Friction Diamond-Like Carbon
,”
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, and
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,
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Higgs
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C. F.
, and
Tichy
,
J.
, 2004, “
Granular Flow Lubrication: Continuum Modeling of Shear Behavior
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
0742-4787,
126
, pp.
499
510
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