This paper analytically investigates the aerodynamic bristle force distributions in brush seals used in aircraft gas turbine engines. These forces are responsible for the onset of bristle tip lift-off from the rotor surface which significantly affects brush seal performance. In order to provide an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms governing the bristle force distributions, a full Navier-Stokes flow simulation is performed in a streamwise periodic module of bristles corresponding to the staggered square configuration. As is the case with a companion paper (Sharatchandra and Rhode, 1996), this study has the novel feature of considering the combined effects of axial (leakage) and tangential (swirl) flows. Specifically, the effects of intra-bristle spacing and bristle inclination angle are explored. The results indicate that the lifting bristle force increases with reduced intra-bristle spacing and increased inclination angle. It was also observed that increases in the axial or tangential flow rates increased the force component in the normal as well as the flow direction.

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