A “two-body” elasto-plastic finite element model of two-dimensional rolling and rolling-plus-sliding has been developed to treat the effect of surface irregularities. The model consists of a smooth cylinder in contact with a semi-infinite half-space that is either smooth or fitted with one of two irregularities: a 0.4 μm deep groove, or a 7 μm deep groove. The model incorporates elastic-linear-kinematic-hardening-plastic (ELKP) and nonlinear-kinematic-hardening-plastic (NLKP) material constitutive relations appropriate for hardened bearing steel and the 440C grade. The calculated contact pressure distribution is Hertzian for smooth body contact, and it displays intense, stationary, pressure spikes superposed on the Hertzian pressure for contact with the grooved and ridged surface. The results obtained for the 0.4 μm deep groove are consistent with those reported by Elsharkawy and Hamrock (1991) for an EHD lubricated contact. The effect of translating the counterface on the half space, as opposed to indenting the counterface on the half-space with no translation, is studied. The stress and strain values near the surface are found to be similar for the two cases, whereas they are significantly different in the subsurface. Efforts have been made to identify the material constitutive relations which best describe the deformation characteristics of the bearing steels in the initial few cycles. ELKP material constitutive relations produce less net plastic deformation in the initial stages, for a given stress, than seen in experiments. NLKP model produces more plasticity than the ELKP model and shows promise for treating the net distortions in the early stages. Artificial indents were inserted on the running track of the cylindrical rolling elements and profilometer measurements of these indents were made, before and after rolling. These preliminary measurements show that substantial plastic deformation takes place in the process of rolling. The deformations of the groove calculated with the finite element model are compared to those measured experimentally.

1.
Bastias, P. C., Du, J., Hahn, G. T., and Rubin, C. A., 1990, “Analysis of Rolling Contact Spall Life in 440C Steel Bearing Rims,” Final Report to NASA-MSFC (NAS8-37764).
2.
Bhargava
V.
,
Hahn
G. T.
, and
Rubin
C. A.
,
1990
, “
Rolling Contact Deformation, Etching Effects and Failure of High Strength Bearing Steels
,”
Met. Trans. A
, Vol.
21A
, pp.
1921
1931
.
3.
de Mul
J. M.
,
Vree
J. M.
, and
Kuypers
J. C.
,
1987
, “
The Influence of certain Raceway Dent Geometries (3-d) on Contact Stresses and Rating Fatigue Life of Rolling Bearings
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY
, Vol.
109
, July, pp.
452
461
.
4.
Elsharkawy, A. A., and Hamrock, B. J., 1990, “Subsurface Stresses in Micro EHL Line Contacts,” Joint ASME/STLE Tribology Conference, Paper No. 90-Trib-11, Toronto, Canada, Oct. 7-10.
5.
Glover, D., “A Ball-Rod Rolling Contact Fatigue Tester,” ASTM STP 771, J. J. C. Hoo, pp. 107–124.
6.
Gupta, v., Bastias, P. C., Rubin, C. A., Hahn, G. T., 1992, “Nucleation and Growth of Rolling Contact Failure of 440C Bearing Steel,” Quarterly Report to NASA-MSFC, Dec.
7.
Gupta, v., Bastias, P. C., Hahn, G. T., and Rubin, C. A., 1991, “Elasto-Plastic Finite Element Analysis of 2-D Rolling Plus Sliding Contact with Temperature Dependent Bearing Steel Material Properties,” presented at the Army Symposium for Solid Mechanics, Plymouth, MA.
8.
Hahn, G. T., Bhargava, V., Chen, Q., and Kim, K. Y., “The Cyclic Stress-Strain Properties Hysterisis Loop Shape and Kinematic Hardening of a Rail Steel,” Metallurgical Transactions A, to be published.
9.
Kumar, A. M., Kulkarni, S. M., Bhargava, V., Hahn, G. T., and Rubin, C. A., 1987, “Mechanisms of Rolling Contact Spalling of 440C Steel,” Final Report to NASA-MSFC (NAS8-36651).
10.
Leng, X., 1990, “Elasto-Plastic Finite Element Analysis of Repeated Rolling Contact Between Two Deforming Bodies,” Master thesis, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Vanderbilt University.
11.
Lubrecht, A. A., Venner, C. H., Lane, S., Jacobson, B., and lonnides, E., 1990, “Surface Damage, Comparison of Theoretical and Experimental Endurance Lives of Rolling Bearing,” Proceedings of the Japan International Tribology Conference.
12.
McDowell
D. L.
,
1985
, “
A Two Surface Theory for Non-Proportional Cyclic Plasticity, Part 1: Development of Appropriate Equations
,”
ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics
, Vol.
52
, pp.
298
302
.
13.
McDowell
D. L.
,
1985
, “
A Two Surface Theory for Non-Proportional Cyclic Plasticity, Part 2: Comparison of Theory with Experiments
,”
ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics
, Vol.
52
, pp.
303
308
.
14.
Muro
H.
,
Tsushima
N.
, and
Nunome
K.
,
1973
, “
Failure Analysis of Rolling Bearings by X-Ray Measurement of Residual Stress
,”
Wear
, Vol.
25
, pp.
345
256
.
15.
Sayles
R. S.
, and
Ioannides
E.
,
1988
, “
Debris Damage in Rolling Bearings and its Effects on Fatigue Life
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY
, Vol.
110
, pp.
26
31
. Jan.
16.
Shao, E., Huang, X., Wang, C., and Chen, Q., 1987, “A Method of Detecting Rolling Contact Initiation and Establishment of Crack Propagation Curves,” ASLE Reprint 87-AM-4E.
17.
Venner
C. H.
,
Lubrecht
A. A.
, and
ten Naple
W. E.
,
1991
, “
Numerical Simulation of the Overrolling of a Surface Feature in an EHL Line Contact
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY
, Vol.
113
, Oct., pp.
777
783
.
18.
Voskamp, A. P., Osterlund, R., Becker, P. C., and Vingsbo, O., 1980, “Gradual Changes in Residual Stress and Microstructure during Contact Fatigue in Ball Bearings,” Metals Technology, Jan., pp. 14–21.
19.
Webster
M. N.
, and
Sayles
R. S.
,
1986
, “
A Numerical Model for the Elastic Frictionless Contact of Real Rough Surfaces
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF TRIBOLOGY
, Vol.
108
, July, pp.
314
320
.
20.
Zaretsky
E. V.
,
Parker
R. J.
, and
Anderson
W. J.
,
1969
, “
A Study of Residual Stress Induced during Rolling Contact
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF LUBRICATION TECHNOLOGY
, Vol.
91
, pp.
314
319
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.