A “two-body,” elasto-plastic finite element model is employed to simulate repeated rolling contact in the presence of a surface irregularity. It is shown that the maximum Mises stress and equivalent plastic strain values in the substrate are related to the height of the pressure spikes. The results of the finite element calculations are used to derive generalizations about the influence of the indent geometry on the pressure spikes, peak cyclic plastic strains and their location below the surface. These relations can serve as guidelines for designing the depth and properties of surface coatings and modified layers.

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