The friction coefficient and adhesion force between steel balls and flat test pieces were measured during friction under low normal load in order to examine the tribological characteristics. First, the friction coefficients were measured under a constant normal load of 0.8 to 2350 μN, and the adhesion forces were measured before and after each friction. The result showed that the friction coefficient was highest at low normal loads, while the friction force divided by the sum of the normal load and the mean adhesion force was almost constant over the whole range of loads. Second, when the normal load was reduced gradually during friction, friction still acted when the normal load became negative and a pulling off force was applied to the surface. Thus an adhesion force acts during friction and this adhesion force affects the friction force in the same way as the normal load.

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