This paper presents a mathematical model for piston skirts in mixed lubrication. It takes into account the effects of surface waviness, roughness, piston skirt surface profile, bulk elastic deformation and thermal distortion of both piston skirts and cylinder bore on piston motion, lubrication and friction. The corresponding computer program developed can be used to calculate the entire piston trajectory and the hydrodynamic and contact friction forces as functions of crank angle under engine running conditions. Complete distributions of the oil film thickness and elastic deformation as well as the hydrodynamic and contact pressures can also be given at any crank angle if needed. This paper is the second part of a series of two papers. The first part (Basic Modeling), presented earlier by Zhu et al. (1991), gave the basic formulation and some preliminary results without bulk deformation considerations. In the present part, the three-dimensional finite element method is used to calculate so-called influence coefficient matrices. These matrices are repeatedly used to compute bulk elastic deformations of piston skirts. Results for 12 different cases are presented, and discussions are given focusing on the influences of elastic and thermal deformations on piston motion, lubrication and friction. An attempt to compare the calculated friction with experimental data is made, and agreement appears good for the two available cases. The computer program presented should be a useful tool for piston design and development.
A Numerical Analysis for Piston Skirts in Mixed Lubrication: Part II—Deformation Considerations
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Zhu, D., Hu, Y., Cheng, H. S., Arai, T., and Hamai, K. (January 1, 1993). "A Numerical Analysis for Piston Skirts in Mixed Lubrication: Part II—Deformation Considerations." ASME. J. Tribol. January 1993; 115(1): 125–133. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2920965
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