An elastic-plastic impact model for spheres is introduced as the basis to study the normal impact of rough surfaces. Statistics is applied to arrive at the ensemble behavior of many unit events alluded above, allowing the investigation of surface roughness effects. Dissipation of kinetic energy increases such as surface roughness, material compliance, and impact velocity is increased. The rebound velocity is shown to be dependent on surface topography and material properties, in addition to impact velocity.

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