The static and dynamic characteristics of annular plain seals were investigated theoretically in the turbulent flow regime. The turbulence model which uses the nonlinear analysis developed by Elrod and Ng has been improved for Reynolds numbers higher than 100,000 to include cryogenic application. In addition, velocity boundary conditions have been reexamined. The two-dimensional Reynolds equation was solved numerically considering the swirl effect and the pressure drop due to axial acceleration of liquid at the inlet of the seal. Integration of the pressure distribution defines the reaction force developed by the seal and the corresponding rotordynamic coefficients. The solution applies for taper geometry of eccentric seal and variable fluid properties.

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