In a refined analytical model for the hydrodynamic lubrication of cold extrusion, effects of viscous heating in the inlet zone and surface temperature in the work zone are included to estimate extrusion pressure for both unsteady and steady lubrication. An experimental study indicates that a hydrodynamic lubricant film may be formed by reducing friction at the start of extrusion by a secondary lubricant. Theoretical estimation of unsteady extrusion pressure is in agreement for extrusion of aluminium billets lubricated with castor oil.

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