The shell condenser is one of the key components of underwater vehicles. To study its thermal performance and to design a more efficient structure, a computational model is generated to simulate condensation inside straight and helical channels. The model combines empirical correlations and a MATLAB-based iterative algorithm. The vapor quality is used as a sign of the degree of condensation. Three calculation models are compared, and the optimal model is verified by a comparison of simulated results and available experimental data. Several cases are designed to reveal the effects of various inlet conditions and the diameter-over-radius (D h / R) ratio. The results show that the inlet temperature and mass rate significantly affect the flow and heat transfer in the condensation process, the heat transfer capabilities of the helical channels are much better than that of the straight channel, and both the heat transfer coefficient and total pressure drop increase with the decrease of D h / R . This study may provide a useful reference for performance prediction and structural design of shell condensers used for underwater vehicles and may provide a relatively universal prediction model for condensation in channels.