Steady nanofluid convective flow in a porous cavity is investigated. Darcy and Koo–Kleinstreuer–Li (KKL) models are considered for porous media and nanofluid, respectively. The solutions of final equations are obtained by control volume-based finite element method (CVFEM). Effective parameters are CuO–water volume fraction, number of undulations, and Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers for porous medium. A correlation for Nuave is presented. Results depicted that heat transfer improvement reduces with the rise of buoyancy forces. Influence of adding nanoparticle augments with augment of Lorentz forces. Increasing Hartmann number leads to decrease in temperature gradient.

References

References
1.
Chamkha
,
A. J.
, and
Ismael
,
M. A.
,
2013
, “
Conjugate Heat Transfer in a Porous Cavity Filled With Nanofluids and Heated by a Triangular Thick Wall
,”
Int. J. Therm. Sci.
,
67
, pp.
135
151
.
2.
Ismael
,
M. A.
, and
Chamkha
,
A. J.
,
2015
, “
Conjugate Natural Convection in a Differentially Heated Composite Enclosure Filled With a Nanofluid
,”
J. Porous Media
,
18
(
7
), pp.
699
716
.
3.
Sheikholeslami
,
M.
, and
Ganji
,
D. D.
,
2016
, “
Nanofluid Convective Heat Transfer Using Semi Analytical and Numerical Approaches: A Review
,”
J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng.
,
65
, pp.
43
77
.
4.
Sheremet
,
M. A.
,
Pop
,
I.
, and
Roşca
,
N. C.
,
2016
, “
Magnetic Field Effect on the Unsteady Natural Convection in a Wavy-Walled Cavity Filled With a Nanofluid: Buongiorno's Mathematical Model
,”
J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng.
,
61
, pp.
211
222
.
5.
Ismael
,
M. A.
,
Armaghani
,
T.
, and
Chamkha
,
A. J.
,
2016
, “
Conjugate Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation in a Cavity Filled With a Nanofluid-Saturated Porous Media and Heated by a Triangular Solid
,”
J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng.
,
59
, pp.
138
151
.
6.
Bondareva
,
N. S.
,
Sheremeta
,
M. A.
,
Oztopc
,
H. F.
, and
Abu-Hamdeh
,
N.
,
2016
, “
Heatline Visualization of MHD Natural Convection in an Inclined Wavy Open Porous Cavity Filled With a Nanofluid With a Local Heater
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
99
, pp.
872
881
.
7.
Hayat
,
T.
,
Nisar
,
Z.
,
Yasmin
,
H.
, and
Alsaedi
,
A.
,
2016
, “
Peristaltic Transport of Nanofluid in a Compliant Wall Channel With Convective Conditions and Thermal Radiation
,”
J. Mol. Liq.
,
220
, pp.
448
453
.
8.
Suganthi
,
K. S.
,
Leela Vinodhan
,
V.
, and
Rajan
,
K. S.
,
2014
, “
Heat Transfer Performance and Transport Properties of ZnO–Ethylene Glycol and ZnO–Ethylene Glycol–Water Nanofluid Coolants
,”
Appl. Energy
,
135
(
15
), pp.
548
559
.
9.
Chen
,
M.
,
He
,
Y.
,
Zhu
,
J.
, and
Wen
,
D.
,
2016
, “
Investigating the Collector Efficiency of Silver Nanofluids Based Direct Absorption Solar Collectors
,”
Appl. Energy
,
181
, pp.
65
74
.
10.
Selimefendigil
,
F.
, and
Öztop
,
H. F.
,
2016
, “
Conjugate Natural Convection in a Cavity With a Conductive Partition and Filled With Different Nanofluids on Different Sides of the Partition
,”
J. Mol. Liq.
,
216
, pp.
67
77
.
11.
Sheikholeslami
,
M.
, and
Ellahi
,
R.
,
2015
, “
Three Dimensional Mesoscopic Simulation of Magnetic Field Effect on Natural Convection of Nanofluid
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
89
, pp.
799
808
.
12.
Sheremet
,
M. A.
,
Oztop
,
H. F.
,
Pop
,
I.
, and
Al-Salem
,
K.
,
2016
, “
MHD Free Convection in a Wavy Open Porous Tall Cavity Filled With Nanofluids Under an Effect of Corner Heater
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
103
, pp.
955
964
.
13.
Sheremet
,
M. A.
,
Oztop
,
H. F.
, and
Pop
,
I.
,
2016
, “
MHD Natural Convection in an Inclined Wavy Cavity With Corner Heater Filled With a Nanofluid
,”
J. Magn. Magn. Mater.
,
416
, pp.
37
47
.
14.
Kandelousi
,
M. S.
,
2014
, “
Effect of Spatially Variable Magnetic Field on Ferrofluid Flow and Heat Transfer Considering Constant Heat Flux Boundary Condition
,”
Eur. Phys. J. Plus
,
129
, p.
248
.
15.
Sheikholeslami
,
M.
, and
Chamkha
,
A. J.
,
2016
, “
Electrohydrodynamic Free Convection Heat Transfer of a Nanofluid in a Semi-Annulus Enclosure With a Sinusoidal Wall
,”
Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A
,
69
(
7
), pp.
781
793
.
16.
Andreozzi
,
A.
,
Manca
,
O.
,
Nardini
,
S.
, and
Ricci
,
D.
,
2016
, “
Forced Convection Enhancement in Channels With Transversal Ribs and Nanofluids
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
98
, pp.
1044
1053
.
17.
Sheikholeslami
,
M.
,
Ganji
,
D. D.
,
Javed
,
M. Y.
, and
Ellahi
,
R.
,
2015
, “
Effect of Thermal Radiation on Magnetohydrodynamics Nanofluid Flow and Heat Transfer by Means of Two Phase Model
,”
J. Magn. Magn. Mater.
,
374
, pp.
36
43
.
18.
Sheikholeslami
,
M.
,
Vajravelu
,
K.
, and
Rashidi
,
M. M.
,
2016
, “
Forced Convection Heat Transfer in a Semi Annulus Under the Influence of a Variable Magnetic Field
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
92
, pp.
339
348
.
19.
Sheikholeslami
,
M.
,
2016
, “
Influence of Coulomb Forces on Fe3O4-H2O Nanofluid Thermal Improvement
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
42
(
2
), pp.
821
829
.
20.
Sheikholeslami
,
M.
,
Hayat
,
T.
, and
Alsaedi
,
A.
,
2017
, “
Numerical Study for External Magnetic Source Influence on Water Based Nanofluid Convective Heat Transfer
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
106
, pp.
745
755
.
21.
Sheikholeslami
,
M.
, and
Chamkha
,
A. J.
,
2016
, “
Flow and Convective Heat Transfer of a Ferro-Nanofluid in a Double-Sided Lid-Driven Cavity With a Wavy Wall in the Presence of a Variable Magnetic Field
,”
Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A
,
69
(
10
), pp.
1186
1200
.
22.
Sheikholeslami
,
M.
,
Hayat
,
T.
, and
Alsaedi
,
A.
,
2016
, “
MHD Free Convection of Al2O3–Water Nanofluid Considering Thermal Radiation: A Numerical Study
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
96
, pp.
513
524
.
23.
Basak
,
T.
, and
Chamkha
,
A. J.
,
2012
, “
Heatline Analysis on Natural Convection for Nanofluids Confined Within Square Cavities With Various Thermal Boundary Conditions
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
55
, pp.
5526
5543
.
24.
Chamkha
,
A. J.
,
Jena
,
S. K.
, and
Mahapatra
,
S. K.
,
2015
, “
MHD Convection in Nanofluids: A Review
,”
J. Nanofluids
,
4
(
3
), pp.
271
292
.
25.
Tayebi
,
T.
,
Chamkha
,
A. J.
,
Djezzar
,
M.
, and
Bouzerzour
,
A.
,
2016
, “
Natural Convective Nanofluid Flow in an Annular Space Between Confocal Elliptic Cylinders
,”
ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl.
,
9
(
1
), p.
011010
.
26.
Ali
,
J. C.
, and
Muneer
,
A. I.
,
2016
, “
Magnetic Field Effect on Mixed Convection in Lid-Driven Trapezoidal Cavities Filled With a Cu–Water Nanofluid With an Aiding or Opposing Side Wall
,”
ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl.
,
8
(
3
), p.
031009
.
27.
Selimefendigil
,
F.
, and
Chamkha
,
A. J.
,
2016
, “
Magnetohydrodynamics Mixed Convection in a Lid-Driven Cavity Having a Corrugated Bottom Wall and Filled With a Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid Under the Influence of an Inclined Magnetic Field
,”
ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl.
,
8
(
2
), p.
021023
.
28.
Mabood
,
F.
,
Abdel-Rahman
,
R. G.
, and
Lorenzini
,
G.
,
2016
, “
Numerical Study of Unsteady Jeffery Fluid Flow With Magnetic Field Effect and Variable Fluid Properties
,”
ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl.
,
8
(
4
), p.
041003
.
29.
Sheikholeslami
,
M.
, and
Abelman
,
S.
,
2015
, “
Two Phase Simulation of Nanofluid Flow and Heat Transfer in an Annulus in the Presence of an Axial Magnetic Field
,”
IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol.
,
14
(
3
), pp.
561
569
.
30.
Sheikholeslami
,
M.
, and
Rashidi
,
M. M.
,
2015
, “
Ferrofluid Heat Transfer Treatment in the Presence of Variable Magnetic Field
,”
Eur. Phys. J. Plus
,
130
(
6
), p.
115
.
31.
Sheikholeslami
,
M.
,
2015
, “
Effect of Uniform Suction on Nanofluid Flow and Heat Transfer Over a Cylinder
,”
J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng.
,
37
(
6
), pp.
1623
1633
.
32.
Garandet
,
J. P.
,
Albussoiere
,
T.
, and
Moreau
,
R.
,
1992
, “
Buoyancy Driven Convection in a Rectangular Enclosure With a Transverse Magnetic Field
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
35
(
4
), pp.
741
748
.
33.
Alchaar
,
S.
,
Vasseur
,
P.
, and
Bilgen
,
E.
,
1995
, “
Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Rectangular Enclosure With a Transverse Magnetic Field
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
117
(
3
), pp.
668
673
.
34.
Kandelousi
,
M. S.
,
2014
, “
KKL Correlation for Simulation of Nanofluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Permeable Channel
,”
Phys. Lett. A
,
378
(
45
), pp.
3331
3339
.
35.
Kim
,
B. S.
,
Lee
,
D. S.
,
Ha
,
M. Y.
, and
Yoon
,
H. S.
,
2008
, “
A Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Square Enclosure With a Circular Cylinder at Different Vertical Locations
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
51
, pp.
1888
1906
.
36.
Khanafer
,
K.
,
Vafai
,
K.
, and
Lightstone
,
M.
,
2003
, “
Buoyancy-Driven Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Two-Dimensional Enclosure Utilizing Nanofluids
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
46
(
19
), pp.
3639
3653
.
37.
Rudraiah
,
N.
,
Barron
,
R. M.
,
Venkatachalappa
,
M.
, and
Subbaraya
,
C. K.
,
1995
, “
Effect of a Magnetic Field on Free Convection in a Rectangular Enclosure
,”
Int. J. Eng. Sci.
,
33
(
8
), pp.
1075
1084
.
You do not currently have access to this content.