Continuous improvements in electronic devices for high-performance computers have led to a need for new and more effective methods of chip cooling. The first purpose of this study was to investigate the heat transfer development and characteristics of aluminum foam heat sink subjected to steady water flow for electronics cooling (Intel core i7 processor). The second purpose was to implement a new type of water flow through the aluminum foam, which is pulsating or oscillating flow in order to achieve more uniform temperature distribution over the electronic surfaces. The aluminum foam heat sink was subjected to a water flow covering the non-Darcy laminar flow regime (297–1353 Reynolds numbers). The bottom side of the heat sink was heated with a heat flux between 8.5 and 13.8 W/cm2. The pulsating flow frequency was ranged from 0.04 to 0.1 Hz. In addition, in order to complement the experimental studies, a numerical model was developed using finite element method and compared with the experimental data. The results revealed that the thermal entry length of the fluid flow through metal foam (porous media) is much smaller than that for laminar internal flow through empty channel. The result also showed that the local surface temperature increases along with increasing the axial flow direction for steady water flow case. On the other hand, for pulsating flow, the local temperature distributions act as a convex profile with the maximum surface temperature at the center of the test section. In addition, it was observed that the pulsating water flow through the aluminum foam heat sink achieves enhancement by 14% in the average Nusselt number and by 73% in temperature uniformity over the surface compared with steady water flow case.

References

References
1.
Gochman
,
S.
,
Ronen
,
R.
,
Anati
,
I.
,
Berkovits
,
A.
,
Kurts
,
T.
,
Naveh
,
A.
,
Saeed
,
A.
,
Sperber
,
Z.
, and
Valentine
,
R.
,
2003
, “
The Intel Pentium M Processor: Microarchitecture and Performance
,”
Int. Technol. J.
,
7
(
2
), pp.
21
36
.
2.
Zhao
,
C.
,
2012
, “
Review on Thermal Transport in High Porosity Cellular Metal Foams With Open Cells
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
55
(
13–14
), pp.
3618
3632
.
3.
Hwang
,
J.
,
Hwang
,
G.
,
Yeh
,
R.
, and
Chao
,
C.
,
2002
, “
Measurement of Interstitial Convective Heat Transfer and Frictional Drag for Flow Across Metal Foams
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
124
(
1
), pp.
120
129
.
4.
Lu
,
W.
,
Zhao
,
C.
, and
Tassou
,
S.
,
2006
, “
Thermal Analysis on Metal Foam Filled Heat Exchangers—Part I: Metal-Foam Filled Pipes
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
49
(
15–16
), pp.
2751
2761
.
5.
Mancin
,
S.
,
Zilio
,
A. C.
,
Diani
,
A.
, and
Rossetto
,
L.
,
2012
, “
Experimental Air Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Through Copper Foams
,”
Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
,
36
, pp.
224
232
.
6.
Mancin
,
S.
,
Zilio
,
C.
,
Rossetto
,
L.
, and
Cavallini
,
A.
,
2011
, “
Heat Transfer Performance of Aluminum Foams
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
133
(
6
), p.
060904
.
7.
Boomsma
,
K.
, and
Poulikakos
,
D.
,
2001
, “
On the Effective Thermal Conductivity of a Three-Dimensionally Structured Fluid-Saturated Metal Foam
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
44
(
4
), pp.
827
836
.
8.
Bhattacharya
,
A.
,
Calmidi
,
V. V.
, and
Mahajan
,
R. L.
,
2002
, “
Thermophysical Properties of High Porosity Metal Foams
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
45
(
5
), pp.
1017
1031
.
9.
Zhao
,
C.
,
Lu
,
W.
, and
Tassou
,
S.
,
2006
, “
Thermal Analysis on Metal-Foam Filled Heat Exchangers—Part II: Tube Heat Exchangers
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
49
(
15–16
), pp.
2762
2770
.
10.
Klett
,
J.
,
Stinton
,
D.
,
Ott
,
R.
,
Walls
,
C.
,
Smith
,
R.
, and
Conway
,
B.
,
2001
, “
Heat Exchangers/Radiators Utilizing Graphite Foams
,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN.
11.
Kim
,
S. Y.
,
Paek
,
J. W.
, and
Kang
,
B. H.
,
2003
, “
Thermal Performance of Aluminum Foam Heat Sinks by Forced Air Cooling
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol.
,
26
(
1
), pp.
262
267
.
12.
Bhattacharya
,
A.
, and
Mahajan
,
R.
,
2002
, “
Finned Metal Foam Heat Sinks for Electronics Cooling in Forced Convection
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
124
(
3
), pp.
155
163
.
13.
Ding
,
X.
,
Lu
,
L.
,
Chen
,
C.
,
He
,
Z.
, and
Ou
,
D.
,
2011
, “
Heat Transfer Enhancement by Using Four Kinds of Porous Structures in a Heat Exchanger
,”
Appl. Mech. Mater.
,
52–54
, pp.
1632
1637
.
14.
Bai
,
M.
, and
Chung
,
J.
,
2011
, “
Analytical and Numerical Prediction of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Open-Cell Metal Foams
,”
Int. J. Therm. Sci.
,
50
(
6
), pp.
869
880
.
15.
Tzeng
,
S. C.
,
Jeng
,
T. M.
, and
Wang
,
Y. C.
,
2006
, “
Experimental Study of Forced Convection in Asymmetrically Heated Sintered Porous Channel With/Without Periodic Baffles
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
49
(
1–2
), pp.
78
88
.
16.
Rachedi
,
R.
, and
Chikh
,
S.
,
2001
, “
Enhancement of Electronic Cooling by Insertion of Foam Materials
,”
J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
37
(
4
), pp.
371
378
.
17.
Nield
,
D.
,
Kuznetsov
,
A.
, and
Xiong
,
M.
,
2003
, “
Thermally Developing Forced Convection in a Porous Medium: Parallel-Plate Channel or Circular Tube With Walls at Constant Heat Flux
,”
J. Porous Media
,
6
(
3
), pp.
203
212
.
18.
Noh
,
J.
,
Lee
,
K.
, and
Lee
,
C.
,
2006
, “
Pressure Loss and Forced Convective Heat Transfer in an Annulus Filled With Aluminum Foam
,”
Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer
,
33
(
4
), pp.
434
444
.
19.
Hetsroni
,
G.
,
Gurevich
,
M.
, and
Rozenblit
,
R.
,
2005
, “
Metal Foam Heat Sink for Transmission Window
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
48
(
18
) pp.
3793
3803
.
20.
Dukhan
,
N.
,
Bağci
,
Ö.
, and
Özdemir
,
M.
,
2015
, “
Thermal Development in Open Cell Metal Foam: An Experiment With Constant Heat Flux
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
85
, pp.
852
859
.
21.
Fu
,
H.
,
Leong
,
K.
,
Huang
,
X.
, and
Liu
,
C.
,
2001
, “
An Experimental Study of Heat Transfer of a Porous Channel Subjected to Oscillating Flow
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
123
(
1
), pp.
162
170
.
22.
Khodadadi
,
J.
,
1991
, “
Oscillatory Fluid Flow Through a Porous Medium Channel Bounded by Two Impermeable Parallel Plates
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
113
(
3
), pp.
509
511
.
23.
Leong
,
K.
, and
Jin
,
L.
,
2005
, “
An Experimental Study of Heat Transfer in Oscillating Flow Through a Channel Filled With Aluminum Foam
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
48
(
2
), pp.
243
253
.
24.
Leong
,
K.
, and
Jin
,
L.
,
2004
, “
Heat Transfer of Oscillating and Steady Flows in a Channel Filled With Porous Media
,”
Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer
,
31
(
1
), pp.
63
72
.
25.
Al-Sumaily
,
G.
, and
Thompson
,
M.
,
2013
, “
Forced Convection From a Circular Cylinder in Pulsating Flow With and Without the Presence of Porous Media
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
61
, pp.
226
244
.
26.
Comsol,
2015
, “
COMSOL Multiphysics
,” Toronto, ON, Canada, http://www.comsol.com/comsol-multiphysics
27.
Bayomy
,
A. M.
, and
Saghir
,
M. Z.
,
2016
, “
Heat Transfer Characteristics of Aluminum Metal Foam Subjected to a Pulsating/Steady Water Flow: Experimental and Numerical Approach
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
97
, pp.
318
336
.
28.
Calmidi
,
V. V.
, and
Mahajan
,
R. L.
,
2000
, “
Forced Convection in High Porosity Metal Foams
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
122
(
3
), pp.
557
565
.
29.
Calmidi
,
V. V.
,
1998
, “
Transport Phenomena in High Porosity Fibrous Metal Foams
,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO.
30.
Taylor
,
J.
,
1995
,
An Introduction to Error Analysis-Study of Uncertainty in Physical Measurements
,
University Science Book
,
South Orange, NJ
.
31.
Calmidi
,
V.
, and
Mahajan
,
R.
,
1999
, “
The Effective Thermal Conductivity of High Porosity Fibrous Metal Foams
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
121
(
2
), pp.
466
471
.
32.
Comsol,
2015
, “
COMSOL Manual, Version 5
,” Comsol Multiphysics, Boston, MA.
33.
Kays
,
W. M.
, and
Crawford
,
M. E.
,
1993
,
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer
,
3rd ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
34.
Bhatti
,
M. S.
, and
Shah
,
R. K.
,
1987
, “
Turbulent and Transition Flow Convective Heat Transfer in Ducts
,”
Handbook of Single-Phase Convective Heat Transfer
,
Wiley Interscience
,
New York
.
You do not currently have access to this content.