The main objective of this study is to numerically analyze the uncertainty of the electrical interface resistance in thermoelectric modules (TEMs) and its contribution to the error of practical device and system simulation. To improve the simulation, the numerical implementation of the interface resistance in TEMs of any size, especially its temperature-dependent characteristics, is critical in the thermoelectric modeling. Using the electrothermal analogy and the PSpice simulator as the simulation baseline, the proposed nonlinear and statistical modeling of the interface resistance is examined and supported through extensive comparisons between experimental findings and numerical results. Considerable accuracy improvement is obtained for a single TEM and a system consisting of a number of interconnected TEMs.

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