A new 2D numerical model of a single U-tube ground heat exchanger is proposed and a four-thermal-resistance model is adopted to evaluate the effective pipe-to-borehole, pipe-to-pipe, and borehole-to-borehole thermal resistances. The influence of temperature distributions on both borehole surface and outer diameter of two pipes to these thermal resistances has been thoroughly studied. The best-fit correlations of effective pipe-to-borehole, pipe-to-pipe, and borehole-to-borehole thermal resistances are proposed and compared with the available equations in the literature. It is found that the present correlations of thermal resistances for ground heat exchanger are more accurate than those of available formulas. Furthermore, based on these obtained thermal resistance correlations, an analytical model is proposed to evaluate the heat transfer performance of the ground heat changer.

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