Pumped refrigerant loops (PRL) which are aimed at eventually cooling electronics often reject heat to a vapor compression cycle. A vapor compression cycle (VCC) uses a proportional, integral, and derivative controller to maintain desired conditions in its evaporator. These controllers apply an algorithm that has an associated time response. The time response and constant adjustment of the expansion valve in the VCC can result in rapid deviations from the set point temperature for the evaporator. When a PRL is coupled to a VCC through an intermediate process fluid, the result in the PRL can be rapid system-wide changes in pressure and mass flow rate depending on equipment specifications. Three options for removing heat from the PRL were evaluated for their effect on PRL system pressure and mass flow rate. Two of the options were variations of the coupling option using an FTS Maxicool RC100 recirculating chiller, while the third eliminated the coupling to the Maxicool’s VCC and used an ice water heat sink in its place. Rejecting heat from a PRL to an ice water heat sink provided more stable system pressures and mass flow rates and less of a propensity for premature dry out than rejecting heat through an intermediate process fluid to the MaxiCool’s VCC. The PRL priming time required when coupled to the ice water heat sink occurred in seconds rather than the minutes required when coupled to the VCC. For certain operating conditions in which thermal storage can be taken advantage of, the ice water heat sink can provide electricity usage cost savings of 10% or more over using a VCC alone. An ice water heat sink for a PRL has potential advantages over being coupled to a VCC, particularly for a laboratory experimental setup and potentially for larger applications.

References

References
1.
Odom
,
B. A.
,
Miner
,
M. J.
,
Ortiz
,
C. A.
,
Sherbeck
,
J. A.
,
Prasher
,
R. S.
, and
Phelan
,
P. E.
, 2011, “
Microchannel Two-Phase Flow Oscillation Control With an Adjustable Inlet Orifice
,”
ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
, pp.
1
9
.
2.
Ulrich
,
R. K.
, and
Brown
,
W. D.
, 2006,
Advanced Electronic Packaging
,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
,
Piscataway
, pp.
2
,
17
,
250
.
3.
Kirschman
,
R. K.
, 1985, “
Cold Electronics: An Overview
,”
Cryogenics
,
25
, pp.
115
122
.
4.
Lee
,
J.
, and
Mudawar
,
I.
, 2008, “
Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Low Temperature Two-Phase Micro-Channel Heat Sinks—Part 1: Experimental Methods and Flow Visualization Results
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
51
, pp.
4315
4326
.
5.
Lee
,
J.
, and
Mudawar
,
I.
, 2009, “
Low-Temperature Two-Phase Microchannel Cooling for High-Heat-Flux Thermal Management of Defense Electronics
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol.
,
32
, pp.
453
465
.
6.
Lee
,
J.
, and
Mudawar
,
I.
, 2005, “
Two-Phase Flow in High-Heat-Flux Micro-Channel Heat Sink for Refrigeration Cooling Applications: Part II—Heat Transfer Characteristics
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
48
, pp.
941
955
.
7.
Phelan
,
P. E.
,
Gupta
,
Y.
,
Tyagi
,
H.
,
Prasher
,
R. S.
,
Cattano
,
J.
,
Michna
,
G.
,
Zhou
,
R.
,
Wen
,
J.
,
Jensen
,
M.
, and
Peles
,
Y.
, 2010, “
Optimization of Refrigeration Systems for High-Heat-Flux Microelectronics
,”
ASME J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl.
,
2
, p.
031004
.
8.
Liu
,
J.
, and
Guo
,
K.
, 2010, “
Transient Performance Investigation of the Mechanically Pumped Cooling Loop (MPCL) System
,”
Int. J. Refrig.
,
33
, pp.
26
32
.
9.
Park
,
J. E.
,
Thome
,
J. R.
, and
Michel
,
B.
, 2009, “
Effect of Inlet Orifice on Saturated CHF and Flow Visualization in Multi-Microchannel Heat Sinks
,”
Annual IEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium
, pp.
1
8
.
10.
Çengel
,
Y. A.
, and
Boles
,
M. A.
, 2008,
Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach
,
6th ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
Boston
, pp.
150
151
.
11.
Whitman
,
W. C.
,
Johnson
,
W. M.
, and
Tomczyk
,
J. A.
, 2005,
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology
,
5th ed.
,
Thompson Delmar Learning
,
Clifton Park
, Unit 24, pp.
464
465
.
You do not currently have access to this content.