Abstract

Fire accidents in road tunnels can form a great danger in the life of people if the evacuation process does not happen effectively. This paper introduces a numerical investigation of fire and evacuation analysis in a road tunnel and provides important insights into the conditions that people are exposed to during evacuation. The fire was assumed to originate from a bus with a fire size of 30 MW at the moment corresponding to the peak heat release rate. Results including smoke distribution, visibility distribution, paths of people during evacuation, people existence density, and people speed are presented and analyzed. One of the important findings of this paper is the estimation of the time available for people to evacuate safely before the approach of the smoke layer to the occupation zone causing deterioration of the visibility values. The discussion introduced a clarification of the connection between the time of exposure to smoke, people speed, and smoke propagation speed. Results showed that the time of exposure to smoke during evacuation can be significantly increased if the fire size is increased especially for persons located within 15 m from the fire location and take more than 2 min to take the decision of evacuation.

References

References
1.
McDermott
,
R.
,
McGrattan
,
K.
, and
Hostikka
,
S.
,
2008
,
Fire Dynamics Simulator (Version 5), Technical Reference Guide, Volume 2: Verification
,
National Institute of Standards and Technology
.
2.
Wang
,
H.
,
2012
, “
Numerical and Theoretical Evaluations of the Propagation of Smoke and Fire in a Full-Scale Tunnel
,”
Fire Saf. J.
,
49
, pp.
10
21
. 10.1016/j.firesaf.2011.12.012
3.
Lin
,
C. J.
, and
Chuah
,
Y. K.
,
2008
, “
A Study on Long Tunnel Smoke Extraction Strategies by Numerical Simulation
,”
Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol.
,
23
(
5
), pp.
522
530
. 10.1016/j.tust.2007.09.003
4.
Blanchard
,
E.
,
Boulet
,
P.
,
Desanghere
,
S.
,
Cesmat
,
E.
,
Meyrand
,
R.
,
Garo
,
J.
, and
Vantelon
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Experimental and Numerical Study of Fire in a Midscale Test Tunnel
,”
Fire Saf. J.
,
47
, pp.
18
31
. 10.1016/j.firesaf.2011.09.009
5.
Liang
,
Q.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Li
,
J.
,
Xu
,
H.
, and
Li
,
K.
,
2017
, “
Numerical Studies on the Smoke Control by Water Mist Screens With Transverse Ventilation in Tunnel Fires
,”
Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol.
,
64
, pp.
177
183
. 10.1016/j.tust.2017.01.017
6.
Musto
,
M.
, and
Rotondo
,
G.
,
2014
, “
Numerical Comparison of Performance Between Traditional and Alternative Jet Fans in Tiled Tunnel in Emergency Ventilation
,”
Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol.
,
42
, pp.
52
58
. 10.1016/j.tust.2014.02.003
7.
Meng
,
N.
,
Hu
,
L.
,
Wu
,
L.
,
Yang
,
L.
,
Zhu
,
S.
,
Chen
,
L.
, and
Tang
,
W.
,
2014
, “
Numerical Study on the Optimization of Smoke Ventilation Mode at the Conjunction Area Between Tunnel Track and Platform in Emergency of a Train Fire at Subway Station
,”
Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol.
,
40
, pp.
151
159
. 10.1016/j.tust.2013.09.014
8.
Gannouni
,
S.
, and
Maad
,
R. B.
,
2015
, “
Numerical Study of the Effect of Blockage on Critical Velocity and Backlayering Length in Longitudinally Ventilated Tunnel Fires
,”
Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol.
,
48
, pp.
147
155
. 10.1016/j.tust.2015.03.003
9.
Thornton
,
C.
,
O’Konski
,
R.
,
Hardeman
,
B.
, and
Swenson
,
D.
,
2011
,
Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics
,
Springer
,
Boston, MA
, pp.
889
892
.
10.
Ronchi
,
E.
,
Alvear
,
D.
,
Berloco
,
N.
,
Capote
,
J.
,
Colonna
,
P.
, and
Cuesta
,
A.
,
2010
, “
Human Behaviour in Road Tunnel Fires: Comparison Between Egress Models (FDS+Evac, Steps, Pathfinder)
,”
Proceedings of the 12th International Interflam Conference
,
Nottingham, UK
,
July 5–7
, pp.
837
848
.
11.
Schmidt-Polończyk
,
N.
,
2013
, “
Computer Modeling of a Fire Hazard and Evacuation of Transportation Tunnels With Longitudinal Ventilation System
,”
AGH J. Min. Geoeng.
,
37
(
1
), pp.
93
104
. 10.7494/mining.2013.37.1.93
12.
Alonso
,
V.
,
Abreu
,
O.
,
Cuesta
,
A.
, and
Alvear
,
D.
,
2014
, “
An Evacuation Model for Risk Analysis in Spanish Road Tunnels
,”
Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci.
,
162
, pp.
208
217
. 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.201
13.
Jevtić
,
R. B.
,
2016
, “
Evacuation From Tunnels: An Example of the Straževica Tunnel
,”
Vojnotehnički Glasnik
,
64
(
3
), pp.
754
768
. 10.5937/vojtehg64-9378
14.
Ronchi
,
E.
,
Arias
,
S.
,
La Mendola
,
S.
, and
Johansson
,
N.
,
2019
, “
A Fire Safety Assessment Approach for Evacuation Analysis in Underground Physics Research Facilities
,”
Fire Saf. J.
,
108
, p.
102839
. 10.1016/j.firesaf.2019.102839
15.
Frantzich
,
H.
, and
Nilsson
,
D.
,
2004
, “
Evacuation Experiments in a Smoke Filled Tunnel
,”
3rd International Symposium on Human Behaviour in Fire
,
Belfast
,
Sept. 1–3
, pp.
229
238
.
16.
Dinenno
,
P.
,
2002
,
SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering
, 3rd ed.,
P. J.
Dinenno
, ed.,
The National Fire Protection Association
,
Quincy, MA
.
17.
Ronchi
,
E.
,
Colonna
,
P.
, and
Berloco
,
N.
,
2013
, “
Reviewing Italian Fire Safety Codes for the Analysis of Road Tunnel Evacuations: Advantages and Limitations of Using Evacuation Models
,”
Saf. Sci.
,
52
, pp.
28
36
. 10.1016/j.ssci.2012.03.015
18.
Colonna
,
P.
,
Berloco
,
N.
, and
Ronchi
,
E.
,
2009
, “
Optimising Fire Protection and Safety in Road Tunnels by Readjusting Risk Analysis Strategy
,”
Proceedings of the Fire Protection and Safety in Tunnels Conference
,
Paris, France
,
Nov. 17–18
.
19.
Worm
,
E.
,
2006
,
Human Behaviour Influencing Tunnel Safety
,
Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Tunnelling Department
,
The Hague, Netherlands
.
20.
Ronchi
,
E.
,
Alvear
,
D.
,
Berloco
,
N.
,
Capote
,
J.
,
Colonna
,
P.
, and
Cuesta
,
A.
,
2009
, “
Human Behaviour in Case of Fire Inside an Urban Tunnel Through Computer Modelling
,”
Proceedings of the Advanced Research Workshop on Fire Protection and Life Safety in Buildings and Transportation Systems
,
University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain
,
Oct. 17
, pp.
349
361
.
21.
Ingason
,
H.
,
1994
, “
Heat Release Rate Measurements in Tunnel Fires
,”
Proceedings of the International Conference on Fires in Tunnels
,
Boras
,
Oct. 10–11
.
22.
Forney
,
G. P.
,
2013
,
Smokeview (Version 6)-A Tool for Visualizing Fire Dynamics Simulation Data Volume II: Technical Reference Guide
,
National Institute of Standards and Technology
,
Gaithersburg, MD
, p.
2
.
23.
Helbing
,
D.
, and
Molnár
,
P.
,
1995
, “
Social Force Model for Pedestrian Dynamics
,”
Phys. Rev. E
,
51
(
5
), pp.
4282
4286
. 10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282
24.
Helbing
,
D.
,
Farkas
,
I.
, and
Vicsek
,
T.
,
2000
, “
Simulating Dynamical Features of Escape Panic
,”
Nature
,
407
(
6803
), pp.
487
490
. 10.1038/35035023
25.
Helbing
,
D.
,
Farkas
,
I. J.
,
Molnar
,
P.
, and
Vicsek
,
T.
,
2002
,
Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics
,
Springer
,
Berlin, Heidelberg
, pp.
21
58
.
26.
Werner
,
T.
, and
Helbing
,
D.
,
2003
, “
The Social Force Pedestrian Model Applied to Real Life Scenarios
,”
Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics
,
Greenwich
,
Aug. 20–22
, pp.
17
26
.
27.
Langston
,
P. A.
,
Masling
,
R.
, and
Asmar
,
B. N.
,
2006
, “
Crowd Dynamics Discrete Element Multi-Circle Model
,”
Saf. Sci.
,
44
(
5
), pp.
395
417
. 10.1016/j.ssci.2005.11.007
28.
Korhonen
,
T.
,
Hostikka
,
S.
,
Heliövaara
,
S.
, and
Ehtamo
,
H.
,
2010
,
Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2008
,
Springer
,
Berlin, Heidelberg
, pp.
109
120
.
29.
Zhou
,
T.
,
He
,
Y.
,
Lin
,
X.
,
Wang
,
X.
, and
Wang
,
J.
,
2017
, “
Influence of Constraint Effect of Sidewall on Maximum Smoke Temperature Distribution Under a Tunnel Ceiling
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
112
, pp.
932
941
. 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.10.111
30.
Alpert
,
R. L.
,
1972
, “
Calculation of Response Time of Ceiling-Mounted Fire Detectors
,”
Fire Technol.
,
8
(
3
), pp.
181
195
. 10.1007/BF02590543
31.
Petterson
,
N. M.
,
2002
, “
Assessing the Feasibility of Reducing the Grid Resolution in FDS Field Modelling
,”
Master's thesis
,
University of Canterbury
,
Christchurch, New Zealand
.
32.
National Fire Protection Association
,
2011
,
NFPA 502, Standard for Road Tunnels, Bridges, and Other Limited Access Highways
.
You do not currently have access to this content.