Ice adhesion and accretion on power lines is a severe problem that can pose a threat to the electric power transmission, and this icing phenomenon is significantly related to the impact dynamics of freezing rain droplets. In the current paper, this impacting process was studied by using computational fluid dynamics, and the model was verified by an experiment with a high-speed camera. The detailed droplet impacting processes on the surface of a very commonly used overhead power line (the ACSR-type cable) were analyzed. The effects of surface wettability (θ = 67–135 deg) and initial droplet impact velocity (We = 22–219) on the evolution of the liquid–solid contact area during the whole process and the volume of the residual liquid on the power line surface after impact were studied. Meanwhile, the influence of the surface structure of the ACSR power line on the droplet impact dynamics was analyzed. Results show that the capturing of impacting droplets can be enhanced by the grooved structures on a hydrophilic ACSR power line surface, while differently the expelling of impacting droplets can be enhanced by these grooved structures on a hydrophobic ACSR power line surface. By analyzing the possible influence of the surface structure of an ACSR power line on the phase transition of impacting droplets, these grooved structures could facilitate the formation of ice nucleation which can finally make the ice adhesion and accretion on an ACSR power line is more serious than that on a traditional smooth cylindrical power line.