Abstract

The pilot diesel injection timing (θ) significantly affects the combustion and performance of dual-fuel (DF) engines. In order to optimize the θ of a natural gas-diesel DF engine, the influence of θ on combustion, cyclic variation, and performance of a diesel engine fueled with natural gas piloted by diesel under full load at 1200 rpm was investigated. The results indicate that, with the advance in θ, the cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise (ROPR), and heat release rate (HRR) increase first and then decrease. The mean value of peak cylinder pressure (pmax) rises and the standard deviation increases first and then decreases. The distribution of the crank angle of peak cylinder pressure (φ(pmax)) scatters and approaches the top dead center. The coefficient of variation (COV) in pmax decreases first and then increases while the COV in φ(pmax) obviously increases. The brake power increases first and then decreases while the brake specific fuel consumption (b.s.f.c.) reduces first and then rises. The CO2 and NOx emissions rise first and then reduce while smoke emission decreases first and then increases, but the CO and HC rise.

References

References
1.
Yousefi
,
A.
,
Birouk
,
M.
, and
Guo
,
H.
,
2017
, “
An Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effect of Diesel Injection Timing on Natural Gas/Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion at Low Load
,”
Fuel
,
203
(
17
), pp.
642
657
. 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.05.009
2.
Lakshmanan
,
T.
, and
Nagarajan
,
G.
,
2010
, “
Experimental Investigation of Timed Manifold Injection of Acetylene in Direct Injection Diesel Engine in Dual Fuel Mode
,”
Energy
,
35
(
8
), pp.
3172
3178
. 10.1016/j.energy.2010.03.055
3.
Wei
,
L.
, and
Geng
,
P.
,
2016
, “
A Review on Natural Gas/Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion, Emissions and Performance
,”
Fuel Process. Technol.
,
142
(
2
), pp.
264
278
. 10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.09.018
4.
Yao
,
C.
,
Hu
,
J.
,
Geng
,
P.
,
Shi
,
J.
,
Zhang
,
D.
, and
Ju
,
Y.
,
2017
, “
Effects of Injection Pressure on Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of Diesel in a Premixed Methanol/Air Mixture Atmosphere in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber
,”
Fuel
,
206
(
20
), pp.
593
602
. 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.06.058
5.
Chen
,
H.
,
Su
,
X.
,
He
,
J.
, and
Xie
,
B.
,
2019
, “
Investigation on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled With Diesel/n-Pentanol/Methanol Blends
,”
Energy
,
167
(
2
), pp.
297
311
. 10.1016/j.energy.2018.10.199
6.
Zhang
,
Q.
,
Li
,
N.
, and
Li
,
M.
,
2016
, “
Combustion and Emission Characteristics of an Electronically-Controlled Common-Rail Dual-Fuel Engine
,”
J. Energy. Inst.
,
89
(
4
), pp.
766
781
. 10.1016/j.joei.2015.03.012
7.
Stefana
,
E.
,
Marciano
,
F.
, and
Alberti
,
M.
,
2016
, “
Qualitative Risk Assessment of a Dual Fuel (LNG-Diesel) System for Heavy-Duty Trucks
,”
J. Loss Prevent. Proc.
,
39
(
1
), pp.
39
58
. 10.1016/j.jlp.2015.11.007
8.
Li
,
W.
,
Liu
,
Z.
,
Wang
,
Z.
,
Dou
,
H.
,
Wang
,
C.
, and
Li
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Effects of Equivalence Ratio on Mixture Properties, Combustion, Thermal Efficiency and Exhaust Emissions of a Pilot-Ignited NG Engine at Low Loads
,”
Fuel
,
171
(
9
), pp.
125
135
. 10.1016/j.fuel.2015.12.056
9.
Guo
,
H.
,
Liko
,
B.
,
Luque
,
L.
, and
Littlejohns
,
J.
,
2018
, “
Combustion Performance and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions of a Natural Gas-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine at a Low Load Condition
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
140
(
11
), p.
112801
. 10.1115/1.4039758
10.
Li
,
W.
,
Liu
,
Z.
, and
Wang
,
Z.
,
2016
, “
Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Combustion Process at Low Loads of a Diesel Natural Gas Dual-Fuel Engine
,”
Energy
,
94
(
1
), pp.
728
741
. 10.1016/j.energy.2015.11.052
11.
Cameretti
,
M. C.
,
Tuccillo
,
R.
,
Simio
,
L. D.
,
Iannaccone
,
S.
, and
Ciaravola
,
U.
,
2016
, “
A Numerical and Experimental Study of Dual Fuel Diesel Engine for Different Injection Timings
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
101
(
10
), pp.
630
638
. 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.12.071
12.
Srinivasan
,
K. K.
,
Krishnan
,
S. R.
, and
Qi
,
Y.
,
2014
, “
Cyclic Combustion Variations in Dual Fuel Partially Premixed Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Engines
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
136
(
3
), p.
012003
. 10.1115/1.4024855
13.
Song
,
J.
, and
Wang
,
G.
,
2020
, “
An Experimental Study on Combustion and Performance of a Liquefied Natural Gas–Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine With Different Pilot Diesel Quantities
,”
ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl.
,
12
(
2
), p.
021011
. 10.1115/1.4043811
14.
Mitchell
,
R. H.
, and
Olsen
,
D. B.
,
2018
, “
Extending Substitution Limits of a Diesel-Natural Gas Dual Fuel Engine
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
140
(
5
), p.
052202
. 10.1115/1.4038625
15.
Papagiannakis
,
R. G.
,
Krishnan
,
S. R.
,
Rakopoulos
,
D. C.
,
Srinivasan
,
K. K.
, and
Rakopoulos
,
C. D.
,
2017
, “
A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study of Diesel Fuel Injection Timing and Gaseous Fuel/Diesel Mass Ratio Effects on the Performance and Emissions of Natural Gas-Diesel HDDI Engine Operating at Various Loads
,”
Fuel
,
202
(
16
), pp.
675
687
. 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.05.012
16.
Abd Alla
,
G. H.
,
Soliman
,
H. A.
,
Badr
,
O. A.
, and
Abd Rabbo
,
M. F.
,
2002
, “
Effect of Injection Timing on the Performance of a Dual Fuel Engine
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
43
(
2
), pp.
269
277
. 10.1016/S0196-8904(00)00168-0
17.
Nwafor
,
O. M. I.
,
2007
, “
Effect of Advanced Injection Timing on Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Running on Natural Gas
,”
Renewable Energy
,
32
(
14
), pp.
2361
2368
. 10.1016/j.renene.2006.12.006
18.
Guerry
,
E. S.
,
Raihan
,
M. S.
,
Srinivasan
,
K. K.
,
Krishnan
,
S. R.
, and
Sohail
,
A.
,
2016
, “
Injection Timing Effects on Partially Premixed Diesel–Methane Dual Fuel Low Temperature Combustion
,”
Appl. Energy
,
162
(
1
), pp.
99
113
. 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.085
19.
Wang
,
Z.
,
Zhao
,
Z.
,
Wang
,
D.
,
Tan
,
M.
,
Han
,
Y.
,
Liu
,
Z.
, and
Dou
,
H.
,
2016
, “
Impact of Pilot Diesel Ignition Mode on Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of a Diesel/Natural Gas Dual Fuel Heavy-Duty Engine
,”
Fuel
,
167
(
5
), pp.
248
256
. 10.1016/j.fuel.2015.11.077
20.
Chen
,
H.
,
Su
,
X.
,
Li
,
J.
, and
Zhong
,
X.
,
2019
, “
Effects of Gasoline and Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers Blending in Diesel on the Combustion and Emission of a Common Rail Diesel Engine
,”
Energy
,
171
(
6
), pp.
981
999
. 10.1016/j.energy.2019.01.089
21.
Song
,
J.
,
Zhang
,
C.
,
Lin
,
G.
, and
Zhang
,
Q.
,
2019
, “
Performance and Emissions of an Electronic Control Common-Rail Diesel Engine Fuelled With Liquefied Natural Gas-Diesel Dual-Fuel Under an Optimization Control Scheme
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D
,
233
(
6
), pp.
1380
1390
. 10.1177/0954407018801076
22.
Zhang
,
C.
, and
Song
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Experimental Study of Co-Combustion Ratio on Fuel Consumption and Emissions of NG-Diesel Dual-Fuel Heavy-Duty Engine Equipped With a Common Rail Injection System
,”
J. Energy Inst.
,
89
(
4
), pp.
578
585
. 10.1016/j.joei.2015.06.005
23.
Holman
,
J. P.
,
2012
,
Experimental Methods for Engineers
,
McGraw-Hill
,
NewYork
.
24.
Zhang
,
C.
,
Zhou
,
A.
,
Shen
,
Y.
,
Li
,
Y.
, and
Shi
,
Q.
,
2017
, “
Effects of Combustion Duration Characteristic on the Brake Thermal Efficiency and NOx Emission of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine Fueled With Diesel-LNG Dual-Fuel
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
127
(
18
), pp.
312
318
. 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.08.034
25.
Nithyanandan
,
K.
,
Zhang
,
J.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Meng
,
X.
,
Donahue
,
R.
,
Lee
,
C.
, and
Dou
,
H.
,
2016
, “
Diesel-Like Efficiency Using Compressed Natural Gas/Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
138
(
9
), p.
052201
. 10.1115/1.4032621
26.
Agarwal
,
A. K.
,
Srivastava
,
D. K.
,
Dhar
,
A.
,
Maurya
,
R. K.
,
Shukla
,
P. C.
, and
Singh
,
A. P.
,
2013
, “
Effect of Fuel Injection Timing and Pressure on Combustion, Emissions and Performance Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine
,”
Fuel
,
111
(
9
), pp.
374
383
. 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.03.016
27.
Yang
,
B.
,
Wang
,
L.
,
Ning
,
L.
, and
Zeng
,
K.
,
2016
, “
Effects of Pilot Injection Timing on the Combustion Noise and Particle Emissions of a Diesel/Natural Gas Dual-Fuel Engine at Low Load
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
102
(
11
), pp.
822
828
. 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.03.126
28.
Papagiannakis
,
R. G.
, and
Hountalas
,
D. T.
,
2004
, “
Combustion and Exhaust Emission Characteristics of a Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine Operated With Pilot Diesel Fuel and Natural Gas
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
45
(
18
), pp.
2971
2987
. 10.1016/j.enconman.2004.01.013
29.
Xu
,
M.
,
Cheng
,
W.
,
Zhang
,
H.
,
An
,
T.
, and
Zhang
,
S.
,
2016
, “
Effect of Diesel Pre-Injection Timing on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignited Natural Gas Engine
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
117
(
11
), pp.
86
94
. 10.1016/j.enconman.2016.02.054
30.
Li
,
M.
,
Zhang
,
Q.
,
Li
,
G.
, and
Shao
,
S.
,
2015
, “
Experimental Investigation on Performance and Heat Release Analysis of a Pilot Ignited Direct Injection Natural Gas Engine
,”
Energy
,
90
(
13
), pp.
1251
1260
. 10.1016/j.energy.2015.06.089
31.
Sun
,
L.
,
Liu
,
Y.
,
Zeng
,
K.
,
Yang
,
R.
, and
Hang
,
Z.
,
2014
, “
Combustion Performance and Stability of a Dual-Fuel Diesel-Natural-Gas Engine
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D
,
229
(
2
), pp.
235
246
. 10.1177/0954407014537814
32.
Shu
,
J.
,
Fu
,
J.
,
Liu
,
J.
,
Zhang
,
L.
, and
Zhao
,
Z.
,
2018
, “
Experimental and Computational Study on the Effects of Injection Timing on Thermodynamics, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Natural Gas (NG)-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine at Low Speed and Low Load
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
160
(
6
), pp.
426
438
. 10.1016/j.enconman.2018.01.047
33.
Wang
,
Q.
,
Wang
,
B.
,
Yao
,
C.
,
Liu
,
M.
,
Wu
,
T.
,
Wei
,
H.
, and
Dou
,
Z.
,
2016
, “
Study on Cyclic Variability of Dual Fuel Combustion in a Methanol Fumigated Diesel Engine
,”
Fuel
,
164
(
2
), pp.
99
109
. 10.1016/j.fuel.2015.10.003
You do not currently have access to this content.