A novel method for the identification of thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity simultaneously by solving inverse heat transfer problems (IHTPs) is proposed. The present method uses a new iterative format of the Levenberg–Marquardt method (LMM) and guarantees global convergence by implementing the subsection identification method. Both simulation and real experiments are conducted to prove the validity and practicability of the proposed method. The thermal properties in simulation and real experiments are identified, respectively, by the proposed method. In the simulation experiments, random errors are added into temperature data to survey the effect of measurement errors on the identification; and the deviations of the results are also compared to that in a published literature to show the superiority of the proposed method. The numerical results illustrate that the identification is accurate and stable. And the identification results of the real experiment are compared with measured ones, proving the practicability of the method.