This paper reports the local multifaceted and area-averaged convective heat transfer coefficients (CHTCs) of longitudinal and transverse bricks arranged in lattice brick setting in tunnel kilns, using a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. A mesh sensitivity analysis was performed and the model was validated against reported experimental data in tunnel kilns. Three turbulence models were tested: the standard k–ε, re-normalization group (RNG) k–ε, and k–ω. The k–ω model provided the closest results to the experimental data. The CHTCs from the front, back, left, and right faces of the longitudinal and transverse bricks were calculated under various conditions. Area-averaged CHTCs for bricks were determined from the multifaceted CHTCs. Effects of rows, layers, and walls on faces and area-averaged CHTCs were investigated. A sensitivity analysis was performed to explore the effect of flow channels on the CHTCs. The numerical results showed that the CHTCs are enhanced by 17% for the longitudinal bricks and 27% for the transverse bricks when a uniform flow is reached in the tunnel kilns. Also, similar area-averaged CHTCs for the longitudinal and transverse bricks were obtained as a result of the uniform flow. Therefore, the specific energy consumption, quality, and quantity of brick production could be enhanced.

References

References
1.
Brosnan
,
D. A.
, and
Robinson
,
G. C.
,
2003
,
Introduction to Drying of Ceramics
,
The American Ceramic Society
, Westerville,
OH
.
2.
Shular
,
J.
,
1996
, “
The Emission Factor Documentation for AP-42, Section 11.7
,” Ceramic Products Manufacturing for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA Contract No. 68-D2-0159.
3.
Rentz
,
A.
,
Schmittinger
,
R.
,
Jochum
,
F.
, and
Schultmann
,
2001
, “
Exemplary Investigation Into the State of Practical Realisation of Integrated Environmental Protection Within the Ceramics Industry Under Observance of the IPPC-Directive and the Development of BAT Reference Documents
,” French-German Institute of Environmental Research, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany, Research Project No. 298 94 313/07.
4.
Meng
,
P.
,
2011
, “
Solid-Solid Recuperation to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Tunnel Kilns
,”
Ph.D. dissertation
, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg, Germany.https://www.tib.eu/en/search/id/TIBKAT%3A656891335/Solid-solid-recuperation-to-improve-the-energy/
5.
Pariyar
,
S. K.
, and
Ferdous
,
T. D.
,
2013
, “
Environment and Health Impact for Brick Kilns in Kathmandu Valley
,”
Int. J. Sci. Technol. Res.
,
2
(
5
), pp.
184
187
.http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.307.3065&rep=rep1&type=pdf
6.
Tehzeeb
,
A. H.
,
Bhuiyan
,
M.
, and
Jayasuriya
,
N.
,
2012
, “
Evaluation of Brick Kiln Performances Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
,”
Energy Environ. Eng. J.
,
1
(
2
), pp.
86
93
.https://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:20313
7.
Almeida
,
G. S.
,
Silva
,
J. B.
,
Silva
,
C. J.
,
Swarnakar
,
R.
,
Neves
,
G. A.
, and
Lima
,
A. G.
,
2013
, “
Heat and Mass Transport in an Industrial Tunnel Dryer: Modeling and Simulation Applied to Hollow Bricks
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
55
(
1–2
), pp.
78
86
.
8.
Refaey
,
H. A.
, and
Specht
,
E.
,
2013
, “
Flow Field Visualization to Simulate the Burning of Sanitary Ware in Tunnel Kilns
,”
Eleventh International Conference of Fluid Dynamics
(
ICFD 11
), Alexandria, Egypt, Dec. 19–21, pp. 1–13.http://www.academia.edu/19107877/Flow_Field_Visualization_to_Simulate_the_Burning_of_Sanitaryware_in_Tunnel_Kilns
9.
Mancuhan
,
E.
,
Kucukada
,
K.
, and
Alpman
,
E.
,
2011
, “
Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of the Preheating Zone of a Tunnel Kiln
,”
J. Therm. Sci. Technol.
,
31
(
2
), pp.
79
86
.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288044522_Mathematical_modeling_and_simulation_of_the_preheating_zone_of_a_tunnel_kiln
10.
Kaya
,
S.
,
Kucukada
,
K.
, and
Mancuhan
,
E.
,
2008
, “
Model-Based Optimization of Heat Recovery in the Cooling Zone of a Tunnel Kiln
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
28
(
5–6
), pp.
633
641
.
11.
Nicolau
,
V.
, and
Dadam
,
A. P.
,
2009
, “
Numerical and Experimental Thermal Analysis of a Tunnel Kiln Used in Ceramic Production
,”
J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng.
,
31
(
4
), pp.
297
304
.
12.
Refaey
,
H. A.
,
Specht
,
E.
, and
Salem
,
M. R.
,
2015
, “
Influence of Fuel Distribution and Heat Transfer on Energy Consumption in Tunnel Kilns
,”
Int. J. Adv. Eng. Technol.
,
8
(
3
), pp.
281
293
.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280231746_Influence_of_Fuel_Distribution_and_Heat_Transfer_on_Energy_Consumption_in_Tunnel_Kilns
13.
German Federal Environmental Agency
,
2007
, “
The Best Available Techniques in the Ceramic Industry
,” Environmental Protection Agency, Wexford, Ireland.
14.
Mancuhan
,
E.
, and
Kucukada
,
K.
,
2006
, “
Optimization of Fuel and Air Use in a Tunnel Kiln to Produce Coal Admixed Bricks
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
26
(
14–15
), pp.
1556
1563
.
15.
Vogt
,
S.
, and
Beckmann
,
M.
,
2008
, “
Convective Heat Transfer on Brick Settings
,”
ZI, Ziegelindustrie Int.
,
60
(
9
), pp.
34
49
.
16.
Dugwell
,
D. R.
, and
Oakley
,
D. E.
,
1989
, “
Correlation of Convective Heat Transfer Data for Tunnel Kilns
,”
ZI, Ziegelindustrie Int.
,
42
(
10
), pp.
536
545
.
17.
Dugwell
,
D. R.
, and
Oakley
,
D. E.
,
1988
, “
A Model of Heat Transfer in Tunnel Kilns Used for Firing Refractories
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
31
(
11
), pp.
2381
2390
.
18.
Karaush
,
S. A.
,
Chizhik
,
Y. I.
, and
Bober
,
E. G.
,
1997
, “
Optimization of Ceramic Setting as a Function of Their Heat Absorption From the Radiating Walls of the Furnace
,”
Glass Ceram.
,
54
(
5–6
), pp.
190
192
.
19.
Abou-Ziyan
,
H. Z.
,
2004
, “
Convective Heat Transfer From Different Brick Arrangements in Tunnel Kilns
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
24
(
2–3
), pp.
171
191
.
20.
Refaey
,
H. A.
,
Abdel-Aziz
,
A. A.
,
Ali
,
R. K.
,
Abdelrahman
,
H. E.
, and
Salem
,
M. R.
,
2017
, “
Augmentation of Convective Heat Transfer in the Cooling Zone of Brick Tunnel Kiln Using Guide Vanes: An Experimental Study
,”
Int. J. Therm. Sci.
,
122
, pp.
172
185
.
21.
Almutairi
,
J. H.
,
Alrahmani
,
M. A.
,
Almesri
,
I. F.
, and
Abou-Ziyan
,
H. Z.
,
2017
, “
Effect of Fluid Channels on Flow Uniformity in Complex Geometry Similar to Lattice Brick Setting in Tunnel Kilns
,”
Int. J. Mech. Sci.
,
134
, pp.
28
40
.
22.
Tahirbegović
,
K. D.
,
Voronjec
,
D. K.
, and
Radojković
,
N. V.
,
1997
, “
Mathematical Model for the Calculation of Resistance to Heat Transmission at the Cross-Flow of Gas in Tunnel Ovens for the Production of Construction Ceramics
,”
Sci. J. Facta Universitatis Ser.: Mech. Eng.
,
1
(
4
), pp.
409
421
.https://philpapers.org/rec/TAHMMF
You do not currently have access to this content.