The demand for plastic is eternally growing in urban areas and producing enormous quantity of plastic waste. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern worldwide. The awareness of waste to energy retrieval is one of the promising modes used for the treatment of the waste plastic. The present investigation evaluates the prospective use of waste plastic oil (WPO) as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. Different blends (WPO0, WPO30, and WPO50) with diesel are prepared on a volume basis and the engine is operated. Experiments are conducted for various injection timings (9 deg, 12 deg, 15 deg, and 18 deg BTDC) and for different exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates (0%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) at 100 MPa injection pressure. Combustion, performance, and tail pipe emissions of common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine are studied. The NOx, CO, and Soot emissions for waste plastic oil-diesel blends are found more than neat diesel. To reduce the NOx, EGR is employed, which results in reduction of NOx considerably, whereas other emissions, i.e., CO and Soot, get increased with increase in EGR rates. Soot for WPO-diesel blends is higher because of aromatic compounds present in plastic oils. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of blends is found to be higher compared to diesel.

References

References
1.
Smit
,
J.
, and
Nasr
,
J.
,
1992
, “
Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities: Using Wastes and Idle Land and Water Bodies as Resources
,”
Environ. Urbanization
,
4
(
2
), pp.
141
152
.
2.
Riber
,
C.
,
Petersen
,
C.
, and
Christensen
,
T. H.
,
2009
, “
Chemical Composition of Material Fractions in Danish Household Waste
,”
Waste Manage.
,
29
(
4
), pp.
1251
1257
.
3.
Donahue
,
C. J.
,
Exline
,
J. A.
, and
Warner
,
C.
,
2003
, “
Chemical Recycling of Pop Bottles: The Synthesis of Dibenzyl Terephthalate From the Plastic Polyethylene Terephthalate
,”
J. Chem. Educ.
,
80
(
1
), p.
79
.
4.
Lange
,
J.
, and
Wyser
,
Y.
,
2003
, “
Recent Innovations in Barrier Technologies for Plastic Packaging—A Review
,”
Packag. Technol. Sci.
,
16
(
4
), pp.
149
158
.
5.
Rastogi
,
S. C.
,
1998
, “
Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Phthalate Esters in Plastic Toys
,”
Chromatographia
,
47
(
11–12
), p.
724
.
6.
Alston
,
S. M.
,
Clark
,
A. D.
,
Arnold
,
J. C.
, and
Stein
,
B. K.
,
2011
, “
Environmental Impact of Pyrolysis of Mixed WEEE Plastics—Part 1: Experimental Pyrolysis Data
,”
Environ. Sci. Technol.
,
45
(
21
), pp.
9380
9385
.
7.
Pinto
,
F.
,
Costa
,
P.
,
Gulyurtlu
,
I.
, and
Cabrita
,
I.
,
1999
, “
Pyrolysis of Plastic Wastes—1: Effect of Plastic Waste Composition on Product Yield
,”
J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis
,
51
(
1–2
), pp.
39
55
.
8.
Lettieri
,
P.
, and
Al-Salem
,
S. M.
,
2011
, “
Thermochemical Treatment of Plastic Solid Waste
,”
WASTE: A Handbook of Waste Management and Recycling
,
Elsevier
,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
, pp.
233
242
.
9.
Panda
,
A. K.
,
Singh
,
R. K.
, and
Mishra
,
D. K.
,
2010
, “
Thermolysis of Waste Plastics to Liquid Fuel: A Suitable Method for Plastic Waste Management and Manufacture of Value Added Products—A World Prospective
,”
Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.
,
14
(
1
), pp.
233
248
.
10.
Buekens
,
A. G.
, and
Huang
,
H.
,
1998
, “
Catalytic Plastics Cracking for Recovery of Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons From Municipal Plastic Wastes
,”
Resour. Conserv. Recycl.
,
23
(
3
), pp.
163
181
.
11.
Zhou
,
C.
,
Fang
,
W.
,
Xu
,
W.
,
Cao
,
A.
, and
Wang
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Characteristics and the Recovery Potential of Plastic Wastes Obtained From Landfill Mining
,”
J. Cleaner Prod.
,
80
, pp.
80
86
.
12.
Scott
,
D. S.
,
Czernik
,
S. R.
,
Piskorz
,
J.
, and
Radlein
,
D. S. A.
,
1990
, “
Fast Pyrolysis of Plastic Wastes
,”
Energy Fuels
,
4
(
4
), pp.
407
411
.
14.
Uçar
,
S.
,
Karagöz
,
S.
,
Yanik
,
J.
,
Saglam
,
M.
, and
Yuksel
,
M.
,
2005
, “
Copyrolysis of Scrap Tires With Waste Lubricant Oil
,”
Fuel Process. Technol.
,
87
(
1
), pp.
53
58
.
15.
Thompson
,
R. C.
,
Swan
,
S. H.
,
Moore
,
C. J.
, and
Saal
,
F. S. V.
,
2009
, “
Our Plastic Age
,”
Philos. Trans. R. Soc., B
,
364
(
1526
), pp.
1973
1976
.
16.
Yamamoto
,
T.
,
Yasuhara
,
A.
,
Shiraishi
,
H.
, and
Nakasugi
,
O.
,
2001
, “
Bisphenol a in Hazardous Waste Landfill Leachates
,”
Chemosphere
,
42
(
4
), pp.
415
418
.
17.
Boonniteewanich, J.
,
Pitivut, S.
,
Tongjoy, S.
,
Lapnonkawow, S.
, and
Suttiruengwong, S.
, 2014, “
Evaluation of Carbon Footprint of Bioplastic Straw compared to Petroleum based Straw Products
,”
Energy Procedia
,
56
, pp. 518–524.
18.
Singh, P.
, and
Sharma, V. P.
, 2016, “
Integrated Plastic Waste Management: Environmental and Improved Health Approaches
,”
Procedia Environ. Sci.
,
35
, pp. 692–700
19.
Aguado
,
J.
,
Serrano
,
D. P.
, and
Escola
,
J. M.
,
2008
, “
Fuels From Waste Plastics by Thermal and Catalytic Processes: A Review
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
47
(
21
), pp.
7982
7992
.
20.
Shafiee
,
S.
, and
Topal
,
E.
,
2009
, “
When Will Fossil Fuel Reserves Be Diminished?
,”
Energy Policy
,
37
(
1
), pp.
181
189
.
21.
Sharma
,
B. K.
,
Moser
,
B. R.
,
Vermillion
,
K. E.
,
Doll
,
K. M.
, and
Rajagopalan
,
N.
,
2014
, “
Production, Characterization and Fuel Properties of Alternative Diesel Fuel From Pyrolysis of Waste Plastic Grocery Bags
,”
Fuel Process. Technol.
,
122
, pp.
79
90
.
22.
Miskolczi
,
N.
,
Angyal
,
A.
,
Bartha
,
L.
, and
Valkai
,
I.
,
2009
, “
Fuels by Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics From Agricultural and Packaging Sectors in a Pilot Scale Reactor
,”
Fuel Process. Technol.
,
90
(
7–8
), pp.
1032
1040
.
23.
Mlsna
,
T.
, and
Kunwar
,
B.
,
2013
, “
Upgrading Bio-Oil With a Combination of Synthesis Gas and Alcohol
,” 245th ACS National Meeting and Exposition, New Orleans, LA, Apr. 7–11.
24.
Elordi
,
G.
,
Olazar
,
M.
,
Lopez
,
G.
,
Amutio
,
M.
,
Artetxe
,
M.
,
Aguado
,
R.
, and
Bilbao
,
J.
,
2009
, “
Catalytic Pyrolysis of HDPE in Continuous Mode Over Zeolite Catalysts in a Conical Spouted Bed Reactor
,”
J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis
,
85
(
1–2
), pp.
345
351
.
25.
Mani
,
M.
, and
Nagarajan
,
G.
,
2009
, “
Influence of Injection Timing on Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Running on Waste Plastic Oil
,”
Energy
,
34
(
10
), pp.
1617
1623
.
26.
Mani
,
M.
,
Nagarajan
,
G.
, and
Sampath
,
S.
,
2010
, “
An Experimental Investigation on a DI Diesel Engine Using Waste Plastic Oil With Exhaust Gas Recirculation
,”
Fuel
,
89
(
8
), pp.
1826
1832
.
27.
Kaimal
,
V. K.
, and
Vijayabalan
,
P.
,
2015
, “
A Detailed Study of Combustion Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Using Waste Plastic Oil and Its Blends
,”
Energy Conversion Manage.
,
105
, pp.
951
956
.
28.
Kaimal
,
V. K.
, and
Vijayabalan
,
P.
,
2015
, “
A Detailed Investigation of the Combustion Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled With Plastic Oil and Rice Bran Methyl Ester
,”
J. Energy Inst.
,
90
(2), pp. 324–330.
29.
Devaraj
,
J.
,
Robinson
,
Y.
, and
Ganapathi
,
P.
,
2015
, “
Experimental Investigation of Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Waste Plastic Pyrolysis Oil Blended With Diethyl Ether Used as Fuel for Diesel Engine
,”
Energy
,
85
, pp.
304
309
.
30.
Coates
,
J.
,
2000
, “
Interpretation of Infrared Spectra, A Practical Approach
,”
Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry
, Willey, Hoboken, NJ.
31.
Kumar
,
S.
,
Prakash
,
R.
,
Murugan
,
S.
, and
Singh
,
R. K.
,
2013
, “
Performance and Emission Analysis of Blends of Waste Plastic Oil Obtained by Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste HDPE With Diesel in a CI Engine
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
74
, pp.
323
331
.
32.
Hulwan
,
D. B.
, and
Joshi
,
S. V.
,
2011
, “
Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristic of a Multicylinder DI Diesel Engine Running on Diesel–Ethanol–Biodiesel Blends of High Ethanol Content
,”
Appl. Energy
,
88
(
12
), pp.
5042
5055
.
33.
Damodharan
,
D.
,
Sathiyagnanam
,
A. P.
,
Rana
,
D.
,
Kumar
,
B. R.
, and
Saravanan
,
S.
,
2017
, “
Extraction and Characterization of Waste Plastic Oil (WPO) With the Effect of n-Butanol Addition on the Performance and Emissions of a DI Diesel Engine Fueled With WPO/Diesel Blends
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
131
, pp.
117
126
.
34.
Ananthakumar
,
S.
,
Jayabal
,
S.
, and
Thirumal
,
P.
,
2017
, “
Investigation on Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Variable Compression Engine Fuelled With Diesel, Waste Plastics Oil Blends
,”
J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng.
,
39
(
1
), pp.
19
28
.
35.
Miandad
,
R.
,
Barakat
,
M. A.
,
Aburiazaiza
,
A. S.
,
Rehan
,
M.
,
Ismail
,
I. M. I.
, and
Nizami
,
A. S.
,
2017
, “
Effect of Plastic Waste Types on Pyrolysis Liquid Oil
,”
Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad.
,
119
, pp.
239
252
.
You do not currently have access to this content.