Paint-based protective films (PPFs) are used to protect condenser tubes from corrosion and erosion but have been shown to be susceptible to biofouling. Here, the biocidal properties of copper-oxide fillers incorporated into PPFs are explored in this paper. Specifically, two PPFs filled with 20% and 50% filler (by weight) are tested in parallel with a nonbiocidal ordinary epoxy PPF, and bare stainless steel tube. Using double-pipe co-current flow heat exchangers installed at a thermal power plant, actual cooling water exiting the condenser is evenly distributed between the test tubes. Heat transfer in the condenser is simulated by heated water flowing through each annulus of the double-pipe heat exchangers, thereby maintaining repeatable outer convection conditions. An exposure test of 125 days shows that the 50% biocide-filled PPF has the lowest fouling factor of all the tubes. The nonbiocidal epoxy has the highest fouling factor and the 20% filled PPF behaves similarly. Both of these are greater than the bare stainless steel control tube. The 50% filled PPF is compared to the fouling of an existing admiralty brass tube and the shapes of the fouling curves are similar. This evidence suggests that provided the filler concentration is sufficiently high, there is the potential for the copper-oxide filler to reduce the asymptotic composite fouling factor by virtue of its antibacterial properties.

References

References
1.
Fraze
,
R. O.
, and
Woodruff
,
B. N.
,
1997
, “In-Situ Coating of Condenser Tubes as an Alternative to Retubing,” Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, Report No. TR-107068.
2.
Gawlik
,
K.
,
Sugama
,
T. R. W.
, and
Reams
,
W.
,
1998
, “Field Testing of Heat Exchanger Tube Coatings,” Geothermal Resources Council, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Report No.
NREL/SR-550-26210
.https://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy99/26210.pdf
3.
Bott
,
T. R.
,
1995
, “
Fouling of Heat Exchangers
,”
Chemical Engineering Monographs
, Vol.
26
,
Elsevier
, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp.
247
, 248.
4.
Reuter
,
H. C. R.
,
Owen
,
M.
, and
Goodenough
,
J. L.
,
2017
, “
Experimental Evaluation of the Temporal Effects of Paint-Based Protective Films on Composite Fouling Inside Admiralty Brass and Titanium Steam Surface Condenser Tubes
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
126
(
Suppl. C
), pp.
848
857
.
5.
IHS ESDU
,
2008
, “Fouling in Cooling Systems Using Fresh Water,” IHS ESDU, London, Report No.
ESDU 08002
.https://www.esdu.com/cgi-bin/ps.pl?sess=unlicensed_1180222123811jrk&t=doc&p=esdu_08002
6.
Balaraju
,
J.
,
Narayanan
,
T. S.
, and
Seshadri
,
S.
,
2003
, “
Electroless Ni-p Composite Coatings
,”
J. Appl. Electrochem.
,
33
(
9
), pp.
807
816
.
7.
Trueba
,
A.
,
García
,
S.
, and
Otero
,
F. M.
,
2006
, “
Antifouling Ni-Cu-P-PTFE Composite Coatings for Heat Exchangers
,”
Adv. Coat. Surf. Technol.
,
19
(
3
), pp.
3
4
.http://www.growthconsulting.frost.com/web/images.nsf/0/AC30959DFBDD0FA865257135001A0829/$File/TI%20Alert%20-%20NA.htm
8.
Yokouchi
,
H.
,
Nonaka
,
T.
, and
Kawabe
,
A.
,
1996
, “
Japanese Developments in Condenser Fouling Control—Part IV: Comparative Tests of Non-Toxic Antifouling Pipe Treating Techniques Model Canals
,”
EPRI Condenser Technology Conference
, Boston, MA, Aug. 26–30, pp. 17.1–17.18.https://www.osti.gov/biblio/414832-japanese-developments-condenser-fouling-control-part-iv-comparative-tests-non-toxic-anti-fouling-pipe-treating-techniques-using-model-canals
9.
Sommer
,
S.
,
Ekin
,
A.
,
Webster
,
D. C.
,
Stafslien
,
S. J.
,
Daniels
,
J.
,
Vanerwal
,
L. J.
,
Thompson
,
S. E. M.
,
Callow
,
M. E.
, and
Callow
,
J. A.
,
2010
, “
A Preliminary Study on the Performance and Fouling-Release Performance of Siloxane-Polyurethane Coatings Prepared From Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) (Pdms) Macromers
,”
Biofouling: J. Bioadhes. Biofilm Res.
,
26
(
8
), pp.
961
972
.
10.
Wells
,
S.
, and
Sytsma
,
M.
,
2009
, “A Review Use Coatings to Mitigate Biofouling Freshwater,” Portland State University, Portland, OR, accessed Feb. 22, 2018, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.458.7807&rep=rep1&type=pdf
11.
Al-Otaibi
,
D.
,
2008
,
Scale Deposition on Coated Carbon Steel and Titanium Surfaces
,
Lambert Academic Publishing
, Saarbrücken, Germany.
12.
Vishwakarma
,
V.
,
Josephine
,
J.
,
George
,
R.
,
Krishnan
,
R.
,
Dash
,
S.
,
Kamruddin
,
M.
,
Kalavathi
,
S.
,
Manoharan
,
N.
,
Tyagi
,
A.
, and
Dayal
,
R.
,
2009
, “
Antibacterial Copper-Nickel Bilayers and Multilayer Coatings by Pulsed Laser Deposition on Titanium
,”
Biofouling
,
25
(
8
), pp.
705
710
.
13.
Goodenough
,
J. L.
,
2013
, “Thermal Performance Evaluation of Artificial Protective Coatings Applied to Steam Surface Condenser Tubes,”
M.Sc. thesis
, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.http://scholar.sun.ac.za/handle/10019.1/85698
14.
Goodenough
,
J.
,
2017
, “The Effects of Paint-Based Protective Films on the Actual Temporal Water-Side Performance Characteristics of Steam Surface Condenser Tubes,”
Ph.D. thesis
, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.http://scholar.sun.ac.za/handle/10019.1/101009
15.
Gnielinski
,
V.
,
2009
, “
Heat Transfer Coefficients for Turbulent Flow in Concentric Annular Ducts
,”
Heat Transfer Eng.
,
30
(
6
), pp.
431
436
.
16.
Petukhov
,
B. S.
, and
Krillov
,
V. V.
,
1958
, “
On Heat Exchange at Turbulent Flow of Liquids in Pipes
,”
Teploenergetika
,
4
, pp.
63
68
.
17.
Lienhard
,
J. H.
, IV.
, and
Lienhard
,
J. H.
, V
,
2008
,
A Heat Transfer Textbook
,
Phlogiston Press
,
Cambridge, MA
.
18.
Kröger
,
D. G.
,
1998
,
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers and Cooling Towers: Thermal-Flow Performance Evaluation and Design
, Penwell Corporation, Tulsa, OK.
19.
Bhatti
,
M. S.
, and
Shah
,
R. K.
,
1987
, “
Turbulent and Transition Flow Convective Heat Transfer
,”
Handbook of Single-Phase Convective Heat Transfer
,
S.
Kakac
,
R. K.
Shah
, and
W.
Aung
, eds.,
Wiley
,
New York
.
20.
Nebot
,
E.
,
Casanueva
,
J.
,
Casanueva
,
T.
, and
Sales
,
D.
,
2007
, “
Model for Fouling Deposition on Power Plant Steam Condensers Cooled With Seawater: Effect of Water Velocity and Tube Material
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
50
(
17–18
), pp.
3351
3358
.
21.
Konak
,
A. R.
,
1973
, “
Prediction of Fouling Curves in Heat Transfer Equipment
,”
Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng.
,
51
, p.
377
.
You do not currently have access to this content.