Abstract

The testing of protective clothing materials against chemical and biological (CB) hazards is usually done at either a swatch of fabric or at the systems level. In this paper, a cylinder test method was developed in combination with a MethylSalicylate (MeS) Simulant test (variant to the MIST test) to study the effect of air-permeable and membrane clothing systems and specifically the effects of layering on protection. Three fabrics, material A air permeable absorptive, material B air impermeable, non-absorptive (membrane) and material C air permeable non-absorptive were tested on the cylinder alone and in combinations at 1 m/s and 10 m/s wind speeds. At high wind speeds, the MeS vapor penetrated all three materials and protection factors (PF) were lower than 10. At the lower wind speed much higher protection was found, PF(material A) = 36, PF(material B) = 29, PF(material C) = 2, and material B showed a significant decrease in protection with a leakage added (PF = 2), which did not occur with material A (PF = 29). When materials A and C were combined the combination of any layer to material A increased protection, especially with material A close to the cylinder: PF = 983 with material A twice, and PF = 765 with material C outside and material A inside. With material C on both layers, essentially no protection was obtained (PF = 2) and with material A outside and material C inside PF was 55, slightly higher than material A alone. In conclusion, the cylinder method provided very useful information in the development of protective clothing systems, especially at the lower wind speed of 1 m/s, and may provide a reliable quick and efficient way to obtain information on protection of air permeable absorptive fabrics. The method provides much more realistic data than current standard swatch tests on such materials and is cheaper and faster than a whole system MIST test.

References

1.
Keiser
,
C.
,
Becker
,
C.
, and
Rossi
,
R.
, “
Moisture Transport and Absorption in Multilayer Protective Clothing Fabrics
,”
Text. Res. J.
, Vol.
78
, No.
7
,
2008
, pp.
604
613
. https://doi.org/10.1177/0040517507081309
2.
Ackerman
,
M.
,
Crown
,
E.
,
Dale
,
J.
,
Murtaza
,
G.
,
Batcheller
,
J.
, and
Gonzalez
,
J.
, “
Development of a Test Apparatus/Method and Material Specifications for Protection From Steam Under Pressure
,”
ASTM STP 1544
, ASTM Subcommittee F23.20, Eds.,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2012
, pp.
308
328
.
3.
Ghali
,
K.
,
Othmani
,
M.
,
Jreije
,
B.
, and
Ghaddar
,
N.
, “
Simplified Heat Transport Model of a Wind-Permeable Clothed Cylinder Subject to Swinging Motion
,”
Text. Res. J.
, Vol.
79
, No.
11
,
2009
, pp.
1043
1055
. https://doi.org/10.1177/0040517508101460
4.
Ghaddar
,
N.
,
Ghali
,
K.
,
Al-Othmani
,
M.
,
Holmer
,
I.
, and
Kuklane
,
K.
, “
Experimental and Theoretical Study of Ventilation and Heat Loss From Isothermally Heated Clothed Vertical Cylinder in a Uniform Flow Field
,”
J. Appl. Mech.
, Vol.
77
, No.
3
,
2010
, 031011. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4000429
5.
Ambesi
,
D.
,
Kleijn
,
C.
,
Bouma
,
R.
,
DenHartog
,
E.
, and
Brasser
,
P.
, “
Forced Convection Mass Deposition and Heat Transfer Onto a Cylinder Sheathed by Protective Garments
,”
AIChE J.
, Vol.
60
, No.
1
,
2014
. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.14246
6.
Brasser
,
P.
and
Van Houwelingen
,
T.
, “
Theoretical and Experimental Study of Vapor Deposition onto a Dressed Body Part
,”
AICHe J.
, Vol.
54
, No.
4
,
2008
, pp.
844
849
. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.11398
7.
Tuinman
,
I.
and
Ort
,
G.
, “
Testing the Protective Performance of Clothing Materials Against Aerosols
,” presented at the
10th International Symposium on Protection against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents
,
Stockholm, Sweden
, June 8–11,
2010
, pp.
6
7
.
8.
Ormond
,
R. B.
,
2012
, “
Advancement in the Man-In-Simulant-Test Methodology and Development of Next Generation Manikin for Chemical and Biological Protection Research
,” Ph.D. thesis,
North Carolina State University
, Raleigh, NC.
9.
Sobera
,
M.
,
Kleijn
,
C.
,
Van den Akker
,
H.
, and
Brasser
,
P.
, “
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer to a Cylinder Sheathed by a Porous Layer American Institute of Chemical Engineers
,”
AIChE J.
, Vol.
49
, No.
12
,
2003
, pp.
3018
3028
. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690491204
10.
Brasser
,
P.
, “
Modeling the Chemical Protective Performance of NBC Clothing Material
,”
J. Occup. Environ. Hyg.
, Vol.
1
, No.
9
,
2004
, pp.
620
628
. https://doi.org/10.1080/15459620490493775
11.
Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 10–2-022
,
Chemical Vapor and Aerosol System-Level Testing of Chemical/Biological Protective Suits, Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG)
,
U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TELCOM)
,
Aberdeen, MD
,
2005
.
12.
Ormond
,
R.
and
Barker
,
R.
, “
Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Protective Clothing
,”
Protective Clothing: Managing Thermal Stress
,
Wang
F.
and
Gao
C.
, Eds.,
Woodhead
,
Cambridge, UK
,
2014
, pp.
112
145
.
13.
ASTM F2588-12,
Standard Test Method for Man-In-Simulant-Test (MIST) for Protective Ensembles
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2012
, www.astm.org
14.
National Research Council
,
Technical Assessment of the Man-In-Simulant-Test (MIST) Program
,
National Academy Press
,
Washington, D.C.
,
1997
.
15.
Duncan
,
E.
and
Gudgin Dickson
,
E.
, “
A New Whole-Body Vapor Exposure Chamber for Protection Performance Research on Chemical Protective Ensembles
,”
AIHA J.
, Vol.
64
, No.
2
,
2003
, pp.
212
221
. https://doi.org/10.1080/15428110308984810
16.
NFPA
,
1994
,
Standard on Protective Ensembles for First Responders to CBRN Terrorism Incidents
,
National Fire Protection Association
,
Quincy, MA
,
2007
.
17.
Sobera
,
M.
and
Kleijn
,
C.
, “
T-RANS Simulations of Subcritical Flow With Heat Transfer Past a Circular Cylinder Surrounded by a Thin Porous Layer
,”
Flow Turb. Combust
, Vol.
80
, No.
4
,
2008
, pp.
531
546
. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10494-008-9150-6
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.