Abstract

Millions of barrels of petroleum and its products are transported across the globe every day. The hazard of oil spills is a looming threat that can lead not only to the loss of valuable products, but also seriously damage the environment and ecosystems. There are various ways of combating oil spills one of which is the use of sorbents. The ASTM F716-09 and ASTM F726-12 standards have been developed for absorbent/adsorbent performance and uptake capacity testing. However, most researchers do not use the procedures proposed by the ASTM when reporting their findings. Currently, the majority of the manuscripts published on oil sorbent testing do not use any uniform standard. Herein, we argue that the ASTM standards have some shortcomings that make them unattractive for researchers to use. These problems are discussed and possible solutions are proposed for more homogeneous and accurate reporting of results.

References

1.
Farzingohar
,
M.
,
Ibrahim
,
Z. Z.
, and
Yasemi
,
M.
, “
Oil Spill Modeling of Diesel and Gasoline With GNOME Around Rajaee Port of Bandar Abbas, Iran
,”
Iran. J. Fish. Sci.
, Vol.
10
,
2011
, pp.
35
46
.
2.
Peishi
,
Q.
,
Zhiguo
,
S.
, and
Yunzhi
,
L.
, “
Mathematical Simulation on the Oil Slick Spreading and Dispersion in Nonuniform Flow Fields
,”
Iran. J. Environ. Heal. Sci. Eng.
, Vol.
8
,
2011
, pp.
339
350
.
3.
El–Fadel
,
M.
,
Abdallah
,
R.
, and
Rachid
,
G.
, “
A Modeling Approach Toward Oil Spill Management Along the Eastern Mediterranean
,”
J. Environ. Manage.
, Vol.
113
,
2012
, pp.
93
102
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.07.035
4.
Hassanshahian
,
M.
,
Emtiazi
,
G.
,
Kermanshahi
,
R. K.
, and
Cappello
,
S.
, “
Comparison of Oil Degrading Microbial Communities in Sediments from the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea
,”
Soil Sediment Contam. Int. J.
, Vol.
19
,
2010
, pp.
277
291
. https://doi.org/10.1080/15320381003695215
5.
Khamehchiyan
,
M.
,
Hossein Charkhabi
,
A.
, and
Tajik
,
M.
, “
Effects of Crude Oil Contamination on Geotechnical Properties of Clayey and Sandy Soils
,”
Eng. Geol.
, Vol.
89
, Nos.
3–4
,
2007
, pp.
220
229
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2006.10.009
6.
Konczewicz
,
W.
,
Grabowska
,
O.
,
Lachowicz
,
D.
, and
Otremba
,
Z.
, “
Study on Oil Sorbents Effectiveness
,”
J. KONES Powertrain Transp.
, Vol.
20
,
2013
, pp.
135
138
.
7.
United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names
,
Historical, Geographical and Legal Validity of the Name: PERSIAN GULF
,
United Nations
,
Vienna
,
2006
.
8.
Wahi
,
R.
,
Chuah
,
L. A.
,
Choong
,
T. S. Y.
,
Ngaini
,
Z.
, and
Nourouzi
,
M. M.
, “
Oil Removal From Aqueous State by Natural Fibrous Sorbent: An Overview
,”
Sep. Purif. Technol.
, Vol.
113
,
2013
, pp.
51
63
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2013.04.015
9.
Seyedi
,
S. M.
,
Rajaei
,
S.
,
Raiesi
,
F.
,
Shiran
,
B.
, and
Raheb
,
J.
, “
Characterization and Potentials of Indigenous Oil-Degrading Bacteria Inhabiting the Rhizosphere of Wild Oat (Avena Fatua L.) in South West of Iran
,”
Iran. J. Biotechnol.
, Vol.
11
,
2013
, pp.
32
40
.
10.
Adebajo
,
M. O.
,
Frost
,
R. L.
,
Kloprogge
,
J. T.
,
Carmody
,
O.
, and
Kokot
,
S.
, “
Porous Materials for Oil Spill Cleanup: A Review of Synthesis and Absorbing Properties
,”
J. Porous Mater.
, Vol.
10
, No.
3
,
2003
, pp.
159
170
. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1027484117065
11.
Deymeh
,
H.
,
Shadizadeh
,
S. R.
, and
Motafakkerfard
,
R.
, “
Experimental Investigation of Seidlitzia Rosmarinus Effect on Oil–Water Interfacial Tension: Usable for Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery
,”
Sci. Iran.
, Vol.
19
, No.
6
,
2012
, pp.
1661
1664
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scient.2012.04.020
12.
Gui
,
X.
,
Zeng
,
Z.
,
Lin
,
Z.
,
Gan
,
Q.
,
Xiang
,
R.
,
Zhu
,
Y.
,
Cao
,
A.
, and
Tang
,
Z.
, “
Magnetic and Highly Recyclable Macroporous Carbon Nanotubes for Spilled Oil Sorption and Separation
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Interf.
, Vol.
5
, No.
12
,
2013
, pp.
5845
5850
. https://doi.org/10.1021/am4015007
13.
Qi
,
P.
,
Lin
,
N.
,
Liu
,
Y.
, and
Zhao
,
J.
, “
Improvement of Oil/Water Selectivity by Stearic Acid Modified Expanded Perlite for Oil Spill Cleanup
,”
J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ.
, Vol.
18
, No.
4
,
2013
, pp.
500
507
. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12204-013-1426-x
14.
Teli
,
M. D.
and
Valia
,
S.
, “
Acetylation of Jute Fiber to Improve Oil Absorbency
,”
Fibers Polym.
, Vol.
14
, No.
6
,
2013
, pp.
915
919
. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12221-013-0915-8
15.
Hu
,
Y.
,
Liu
,
X.
,
Zou
,
J.
,
Gu
,
T.
,
Chai
,
W.
, and
Li
,
H.
, “
Graphite/Isobutylene–Isoprene Rubber Highly Porous Cryogels as New Sorbents for Oil Spills and Organic Liquids
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Interf.
, Vol.
5
, No.
16
,
2013
, pp.
7737
7742
. https://doi.org/10.1021/am303294m
16.
Wang
,
J.
,
Zheng
,
Y.
,
Kang
,
Y.
, and
Wang
,
A.
, “
Investigation of Oil Sorption Capability of PBMA/SiO2 Coated Kapok Fiber
,”
Chem. Eng. J.
, Vol.
223
,
2013
, pp.
632
637
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.03.007
17.
Lei
,
W.
,
Portehault
,
D.
,
Liu
,
D.
,
Qin
,
S.
, and
Chen
,
Y.
, “
Porous Boron Nitride Nanosheets for Effective Water Cleaning
,”
Nat. Commun.
, Vol.
4
,
2013
, 1777. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2818
18.
Lee
,
Y.-H.
,
Kim
,
J.-S.
,
Kim
,
D.-H.
,
Shin
,
M.-S.
,
Jung
,
Y.-J.
,
Lee
,
D.-J.
, and
Kim
,
H.-D.
, “
Effect of Blend Ratio of PP/Kapok Blend Nonwoven Fabrics on Oil Sorption Capacity
,”
Environ. Technol.
, Vol.
34
, No.
24
,
2013
, pp.
3169
3175
. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2013.808242
19.
Li
,
J.
,
Luo
,
M.
,
Zhao
,
C.-J.
,
Li
,
C.-Y.
,
Wang
,
W.
,
Zu
,
Y.-G.
, and
Fu
,
Y.-J.
, “
Oil Removal From Water With Yellow Horn Shell Residues Treated by Ionic Liquid
,”
Bioresour. Technol.
, Vol.
128
,
2013
, pp.
673
678
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.11.009
20.
Xiao
,
N.
,
Zhou
,
Y.
,
Ling
,
Z.
, and
Qiu
,
J.
, “
Synthesis of a Carbon Nanofiber/Carbon Foam Composite From Coal Liquefaction Residue for the Separation of Oil and Water
,”
Carbon N. Y.
, Vol.
59
,
2013
, pp.
530
536
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.03.051
21.
El-Ghazawy
,
R. A. M.
,
Farag
,
R. K.
,
Elsaeed
,
S. M.
,
Abde–Halim
,
E.-D. A.
,
Yossef
,
M. A.
, and
Toyor
,
W. E.
, “
Castor Oil Based Organogels: I. Synthesis, Swelling, and Network Parameters
,”
J. Dispers. Sci. Technol.
, Vol.
35
, No.
3
, pp.
350
357
.
22.
Zhou
,
X.
,
Zhang
,
Z.
,
Xu
,
X.
,
Men
,
X.
, and
Zhu
,
X.
, “
Facile Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Sponge with Selective Absorption and Collection of Oil from Water
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
, Vol.
52
, No.
27
,
2013
, pp.
9411
9416
. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie400942t
23.
Pavía-Sanders
,
A.
,
Zhang
,
S.
,
Flores
,
J. A.
,
Sanders
,
J. E.
,
Raymond
,
J. E.
, and
Wooley
,
K. L.
, “
Robust Magnetic/Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles Designed for Crude Oil Entrapment and Recovery in Aqueous Environments
,”
ACS Nano
, Vol.
7
, No.
9
,
2013
, pp.
7552
7561
. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn401541e
24.
Jiang
,
G.
,
Hu
,
R.
,
Wang
,
X.
,
Xi
,
X.
,
Wang
,
R.
,
Wei
,
Z.
,
Li
,
X.
, and
Tang
,
B.
, “
Preparation of Superhydrophobic and Superoleophilic Polypropylene Fibers With Application in Oil/Water Separation
,”
J. Text. Inst.
, Vol.
104
, No.
8
,
2013
, pp.
790
797
. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405000.2012.757008
25.
Nejad
,
H. K.
,
Keshavarz
,
P.
, and
Mowla
,
D.
, “
Investigation of Gas Oil Separation From Wastewater Using a Specific Natural Clay as Adsorbent
,”
Desalin. Water Treat.
, Vol.
52
,
2013
, pp.
1
8
.
26.
Rafiee
,
M. A.
,
Narayanan
,
T. N.
,
Hashim
,
D. P.
,
Sakhavand
,
N.
,
Shahsavari
,
R.
,
Vajtai
,
R.
, and
Ajayan
,
P. M.
, “
Hexagonal Boron Nitride and Graphite Oxide Reinforced Multifunctional Porous Cement Composites
,”
Adv. Funct. Mater.
, Vol.
23
, No.
45
,
2013
, pp.
5624
5630
. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201203866
27.
ASTM F716-09:
Standard Test Method for Sorbent Performance of Absorbents
,
Annual Book of ASTM Standards
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2009
.
28.
ASTM F726-12:
Standard Test Method for Sorbent Performance of Adsorbents
,
Annual Book of ASTM Standards
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
,
2012
.
29.
Wang
,
J.
,
Zheng
,
Y.
, and
Wang
,
A.
, “
Effect of Kapok Fiber Treated With Various Solvents on Oil Absorbency
,”
Ind. Crops Prod.
, Vol.
40
,
2012
, pp.
178
184
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.03.002
30.
Suni
,
S.
,
Kosunen
,
A.-L.
,
Hautala
,
M.
,
Pasila
,
A.
, and
Romantschuk
,
M.
, “
Use of a By-Product of Peat Excavation, Cotton Grass Fibre, as a Sorbent for Oil-Spills
,”
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
, Vol.
49
, Nos.
11–12
,
2004
, pp.
916
921
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.06.015
31.
Ibrahim
,
S.
,
Wang
,
S.
, and
Ang
,
H. M.
, “
Removal of Emulsified Oil From Oily Wastewater Using Agricultural Waste Barley Straw
,”
Biochem. Eng. J.
, Vol.
49
, No.
1
,
2010
, pp.
78
83
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2009.11.013
32.
Angelova
,
D.
,
Uzunov
,
I.
,
Uzunova
,
S.
,
Gigova
,
A.
, and
Minchev
,
L.
, “
Kinetics of Oil and Oil Products Adsorption by Carbonized Rice Husks
,”
Chem. Eng. J.
, Vol.
172
, No.
1
,
2011
, pp.
306
311
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.05.114
33.
Rengasamy
,
R. S.
,
Das
,
D.
, and
Praba Karan
,
C.
, “
Study of Oil Sorption Behavior of Filled and Structured Fiber Assemblies Made From Polypropylene, Kapok and Milkweed Fibers
,”
J. Hazard. Mater.
, Vol.
186
, No.
1
,
2011
, pp.
526
532
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.11.031
34.
Khan
,
E.
,
Virojnagud
,
W.
, and
Ratpukdi
,
T.
, “
Use of Biomass Sorbents for Oil Removal From Gas Station Runoff
,”
Chemosphere
, Vol.
57
, No.
7
,
2004
, pp.
681
689
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.06.028
35.
Wei
,
G.
,
Miao
,
Y.-E.
,
Zhang
,
C.
,
Yang
,
Z.
,
Liu
,
Z.
,
Tjiu
,
W. W.
, and
Liu
,
T.
, “
Ni–Doped Graphene/Carbon Cryogels and Their Applications As Versatile Sorbents for Water Purification
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Interf.
, Vol.
5
, No.
15
,
2013
, pp.
7584
7591
. https://doi.org/10.1021/am401887g
36.
Likon
,
M.
,
Remškar
,
M.
,
Ducman
,
V.
, and
Švegl
,
F.
, “
Populus Seed Fibers as a Natural Source for Production of Oil Super Absorbents
,”
J. Environ. Manage.
, Vol.
114
, No.
15
,
2013
, pp.
158
167
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.03.047
37.
Chin
,
S. F.
,
Binti Romainor
,
A. N.
, and
Pang
,
S. C.
, “
Fabrication of Hydrophobic and Magnetic Cellulose Aerogel With High Oil Absorption Capacity
,”
Mater. Lett.
, Vol.
115
,
2014
, pp.
241
243
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2013.10.061
38.
Chen
,
M.
,
Jiang
,
W.
,
Wang
,
F.
,
Shen
,
P.
,
Ma
,
P.
,
Gu
,
J.
,
Mao
,
J.
, and
Li
,
F.
, “
Synthesis of Highly Hydrophobic Floating Magnetic Polymer Nanocomposites for the Removal of Oils From Water Surface
,”
Appl. Surf. Sci.
, Vol.
286
,
2013
, pp.
249
256
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.09.059
39.
Zhang
,
A.
,
Chen
,
M.
,
Du
,
C.
,
Guo
,
H.
,
Bai
,
H.
, and
Li
,
L.
, “
Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Oil Absorbent With a Three–Dimensionally Interconnected Porous Structure and Swellable Skeleton
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Iinterf.
, Vol.
5
, No.
20
,
2013
, pp.
10201
10206
. https://doi.org/10.1021/am4029203
40.
Liu
,
Y.
,
Ma
,
J.
,
Wu
,
T.
,
Wang
,
X.
,
Huang
,
G.
,
Liu
,
Y.
,
Qiu
,
H.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Wang
,
W.
, and
Gao
,
J.
, “
Cost–Effective Reduced Graphene Oxide–Coated Polyurethane Sponge as a Highly Efficient and Reusable Oil–Absorbent
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Interf.
, Vol.
5
, No.
20
,
2013
, pp.
10018
10026
. https://doi.org/10.1021/am4024252
41.
Song
,
C.
,
Ding
,
L.
,
Yao
,
F.
,
Deng
,
J.
, and
Yang
,
W.
, “
β-Cyclodextrin-Based Oil-Absorbent Microspheres: Preparation and High Oil Absorbency
,”
Carbohydr. Polym.
, Vol.
91
, No.
1
,
2013
, pp.
217
223
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.08.036
42.
Tan
,
D.
,
Xiong
,
W.
,
Sun
,
H.
,
Zhang
,
Z.
,
Ma
,
W.
,
Meng
,
C.
,
Fan
,
W.
, and
Li
,
A.
, “
Conjugated Microporous Polymer With Film and Nanotube-Like Morphologies
,”
Micropor. Mesopor. Mater.
, Vol.
176
,
2013
, pp.
25
30
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2013.03.018
43.
Zhao
,
J.
,
Xiao
,
C.
, and
Xu
,
N.
, “
Evaluation of Polypropylene and Poly (Butylmethacrylate–Co–Hydroxyethylmethacrylate) Nonwoven Material as Oil Absorbent
,”
Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res.
, Vol.
20
, No.
6
,
2013
, pp.
4137
4145
. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1397-8
44.
Nagappan
,
S.
,
Park
,
J. J.
,
Park
,
S. S.
,
Lee
,
W.-K.
, and
Ha
,
C.-S.
, “
Bio-Inspired, Multi-Purpose and Instant Superhydrophobic–Superoleophilic Lotus Leaf Powder Hybrid Micro-Nanocomposites for Selective Oil Spill Capture
,”
J. Mater. Chem. A
, Vol.
1
,
2013
, pp.
6761
6769
. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ta00001j
45.
He
,
Y.
,
Liu
,
Y.
,
Wu
,
T.
,
Ma
,
J.
,
Wang
,
X.
,
Gong
,
Q.
,
Kong
,
W.
,
Xing
,
F.
,
Liu
,
Y.
, and
Gao
,
J.
, “
An Environmentally Friendly Method for the Fabrication of Reduced Graphene Oxide Foam With a Super Oil Absorption Capacity
,”
J. Hazard. Mater.
, Vol.
260
,
2013
, pp.
796
805
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.06.042
46.
Chen
,
S.
,
He
,
G.
,
Hu
,
H.
,
Jin
,
S.
,
Zhou
,
Y.
,
He
,
Y.
,
He
,
S.
,
Zhao
,
F.
, and
Hou
,
H.
, “
Elastic Carbon Foam Via Direct Carbonization of Polymer Foam for Flexible Electrodes and Organic Chemical Absorption
,”
Energy Environ. Sci.
, Vol.
6
,
2013
, pp.
2435
2439
. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ee41436a
47.
Jing
,
P.
,
Fang
,
X.
,
Yan
,
J.
,
Guo
,
J.
, and
Fang
,
Y.
, “
Ultra-Low Density Porous Polystyrene Monolith: Facile Preparation and Superior Application
,”
J. Mater. Chem. A
, Vol.
1
,
2013
, pp.
10135
10141
. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ta11761h
48.
Vlaev
,
L.
,
Petkov
,
P.
,
Dimitrov
,
A.
, and
Genieva
,
S.
, “
Cleanup of Water Polluted With Crude Oil or Diesel Fuel Using Rice Husks Ash
,”
J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng.
, Vol.
42
, No.
6
,
2011
, pp.
957
964
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2011.04.004
49.
Wang
,
J.
,
Zheng
,
Y.
, and
Wang
,
A.
, “
Superhydrophobic Kapok Fiber Oil-Absorbent: Preparation and High Oil Absorbency
,”
Chem. Eng. J.
, Vol.
213
,
2012
, pp.
1
7
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.09.116
50.
Moriwaki
,
H.
,
Kitajima
,
S.
,
Kurashima
,
M.
,
Hagiwara
,
A.
,
Haraguchi
,
K.
,
Shirai
,
K.
,
Kanekatsu
,
R.
, and
Kiguchi
,
K.
, “
Utilization of Silkworm Cocoon Waste as a Sorbent for the Removal of Oil From Water
,”
J. Hazard. Mater.
, Vol.
165
, Nos.
1–3
,
2009
, pp.
266
270
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.09.116
51.
Kumagai
,
S.
,
Noguchi
,
Y.
,
Kurimoto
,
Y.
, and
Takeda
,
K.
, “
Oil Adsorbent Produced by the Carbonization of Rice Husks
,”
Waste Manage.
, Vol.
27
, No.
4
,
2007
, pp.
554
561
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2006.04.006
52.
Said
,
A. E.-A. A.
,
Ludwick
,
A. G.
, and
Aglan
,
H. A.
, “
Usefulness of Raw Bagasse for Oil Absorption: A Comparison of Raw and Acylated Bagasse and Their Components
,”
Bioresour. Technol.
, Vol.
100
, No.
7
,
2009
, pp.
2219
2222
. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.09.060
53.
Inagaki
,
M.
,
Kawahara
,
A.
, and
Konno
,
H.
, “
Sorption and Recovery of Heavy Oils Using Carbonized Fir Fibers and Recycling
,”
Carbon N. Y.
, Vol.
40
, No.
1
,
2002
, pp.
105
111
. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6223(01)00083-5
54.
Bazargan
,
A.
,
Hui
,
C.
, and
Mckay
,
G.
, “
Marine Residual Fuel Sorption and Desorption Kinetics by Alkali Treated Rice Husks
,”
Cellulose
, Vol.
21
, No.
3
,
2014
, pp.
1997
2006
. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0257-8
55.
Bazargan
,
A.
,
Tan
,
J.
,
Hui
,
C.
, and
McKay
,
G.
, “
Utilization of Rice Husks for the Production of Oil Sorbent Materials
,”
Cellulose
, Vol.
21
, No.
3
,
2014
, pp.
1679
1688
. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0203-9
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.