Experimental and theoretical simulations of a novel sustainable desalination process have been carried out. The simulated process consists of pumping seawater through a solar heater before flashing it under vacuum in an elevated chamber. Vacuum is passively created and then maintained by the hydrostatic balance between pressure inside the elevated flash chamber and outdoor atmospheric pressure. Experimental simulations were carried out using a pilot unit built to depict the proposed desalination system. Theoretical simulations were performed using a detailed computer code employing fundamental physical and thermodynamic laws to describe the separation process, complimented by experimentally based correlations to estimate physical properties of the involved species and operational parameters of the proposed system setting it apart from previous empirical desalination models. Experimental and theoretical simulation results matched well, validating the developed model. Feasibility of the proposed system rapidly increased with flash temperature due to increased fresh water production and improved heat recovery. In addition, the proposed desalination system is naturally sustainable by solar radiation and gravity, making it very energy efficient.

References

References
1.
Abutayeh
,
M.
, and
Goswami
,
D. Y.
,
2010
, “
Passive Vacuum Solar Flash Desalination
,”
AIChE J.
,
56
, pp.
1196
1203
.10.1002/aic.12060
2.
Abutayeh
,
M.
, and
Goswami
,
D. Y.
,
2010
, “
Experimental Simulation of Solar Flash Desalination
,”
J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
132
, pp.
41015
41022
.10.1115/1.4002557
3.
Al-Kharabsheh
,
S.
, and
Goswami
,
D. Y.
,
2003
, “
Experimental Study of an Innovative Solar Water Desalination System Utilizing a Passive Vacuum Technique
,”
J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
75
, pp.
395
401
.10.1016/j.solener.2003.08.031
4.
Bemporad
,
G. A.
,
1995
, “
Basic Thermodynamic Aspects of a Solar Energy Based Desalination Process
,”
Sol. Energy
,
54
, pp.
125
134
.10.1016/0038-092X(94)00110-Y
5.
Geankoplis
,
C. J.
,
2003
,
Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles
,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ
.
6.
Turekian
,
K. K.
,
1968
,
Oceans
,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ
.
7.
Sander
,
R.
,
1999
, “
Compilation of Henry's Law Constants for Inorganic and Organic Species of Potential Importance in Environmental Chemistry
,” www.henrys-law.org
8.
Perry
,
R. H.
, and
Green
,
D.
,
1984
,
Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
9.
Thibodeaux
,
L. J.
,
1996
,
Environmental Chemodynamics
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
10.
Sinnott
,
R. K.
,
1996
,
Coulson and Richardson's Chemical Engineering
,
Butterworth–Heinemann
,
Oxford, UK
.
11.
Goswami
,
D. Y.
,
Kreith
,
F.
, and
Kreider
,
J. F.
,
2000
,
Principles of Solar Engineering
,
2nd ed.
,
Taylor & Francis
,
Philadelphia, PA
.
12.
Hermann
,
M.
,
Koschikowski
,
J.
, and
Rommel
,
M.
,
2002
, “
Corrosion–Free Solar Collectors for Thermally Driven Seawater Desalination
,”
Sol. Energy
,
72
, pp.
415
426
.10.1016/S0038-092X(02)00006-3
13.
Chopey
,
N. P.
,
1994
,
Handbook of Chemical Engineering Calculations
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
14.
Mamaev
,
O. I.
,
1975
,
Temperature–Salinity Analysis of World Ocean Waters, Translation From Russian by R. J. Burton
,
Elsevier Scientific Publishing
,
Amsterdam, Netherlands
.
15.
Caldwell
,
D. R.
,
1974
, “
The Thermal Conductivity of Seawater
,”
Deep-Sea Res. Oceanogr. Abstr.
,
21
, pp.
131
138
.10.1016/0011-7471(74)90070-9
16.
Millero
,
F. J.
, and
Poisson
,
A.
,
1981
, “
International One–Atmosphere Equation of State of Seawater
,”
Deep-Sea Res. Oceanogr. Abstr.
,
28
, pp.
625
629
.10.1016/0198-0149(81)90122-9
17.
Sündermann
,
J.
,
1986
,
Landolt-Börnstein: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Group V: Geophysics and Space Research
, Vol.
3
, Oceanography, Springer. Sub–Volume: A, Berlin,
Germany
.
18.
Kalogirou
,
S. A.
,
2005
, “
Seawater Desalination Using Renewable Energy Sources
,”
Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
,
31
(
3
), pp.
242
281
.10.1016/j.pecs.2005.03.001
You do not currently have access to this content.