Carbon particles can be used as catalyst in solar reactors where they serve as radiant absorbent and nucleation sites for the heterogeneous decomposition reaction. Unlike commonly used metal catalysts, carbon catalyst does not have durability problem and high cost. However, in order to achieve sustainable catalytic decomposition of feedstock over carbon catalysts at elevated temperatures, the surface area of the carbon particles must be maintained. A subsequent treatment of deactivated carbon samples with CO2 at about 1000 °C would increase the surface and would recover the original activity as catalyst. In a windowed solar reactor, carbon particles are directly exposed to the high flux irradiation providing efficient radiation heat transfer directly to the reaction site. Therefore, one of the key parameters to achieve higher conversion efficiencies in a solar reactor is the presence and transport of carbon particles. In this paper, a transient one-dimensional model is presented to describe the effect of carbon particle feeding on energy transport and temperature profile of a cavity-type solar receiver. The model was developed by dividing the receiver into several control volumes and formulating energy balance equations for gas phase, particles, and cavity walls within each control volume. Monte Carlo ray tracing method was used to determine the solar heat absorbed by particles and cavity walls, as well as the radiative exchange between particles and cavity walls. Model accuracy was verified by experimental work using a solar receiver where carbon particles were injected uniformly. Comparison of simulation results with the experimentally measured temperatures at three different locations on cavity receiver wall showed an average deviation of 3.81%. The model was then used to study the effect of carbon particle size and feeding rate on the heat transfer, temperature profile, and energy absorption of the solar receiver. Based on the simulation results, it was found that injection of carbon particles with a size bigger than 500 µm has no significant influence on heat transfer of the system. However, by reducing the particle size lower than 500 µm, temperature uniformity and energy absorption can be enhanced.