Baking is an energy intensive unit operation. The thermal application of solar energy is getting attention in food processes by eliminating the facts of interrupted supply and fluctuated costs of nonrenewable energy sources. This study has been carried out for the design and development of solar bakery unit which comprises of a 10 m2 Scheffler reflector focusing all the beam radiations on a secondary reflector that further concentrate the beam radiations toward the heat receiver of solar bakery unit to heat up the air circulated through baking chamber employing a photovoltaic operated fan. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD)-based three-dimensional (3D) simulation was performed to analyze the design for uniform air distribution in the baking chamber. The system designed configurations gave quite good results for airflow distribution. The receiver temperature reached between 300 and 400 °C while temperature at the inlet of baking chamber was in the range of 200–230 °C, sufficient for most of the products to be baked. The maximum available solar power at receiver was calculated to be 3.46 kW having an average efficiency of 63%. A series of experiments were conducted for the baking of cakes and total energy available in baking chamber was about 3.29 kW and cake utilized 0.201 kW energy to be baked. The average value of energy utilization ratio was found to be 45%. As a base, the study would lead to the development of an appropriate and low cost solar baking units for the maximum retention of quality parameters and energy saving.

References

References
1.
Pohekar
,
S. D.
,
Kumar
,
D.
, and
Ramachandran
,
M.
,
2005
, “
Dissemination of Cooking Energy Alternatives in India—A Review
,”
Renewable Sustainable Energy
,
9
(
4
), pp.
379
393
.
2.
Kalogirous
,
S.
,
2004
, “
Solar Thermal Collectors and Applications
,”
Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
,
30
(
3
), pp.
231
295
.
3.
Saxena
,
A.
,
Varun
,
Pandey
,
S. P.
, and
Srivastav
,
G.
,
2011
, “
Thermodynamic Review on Solar Type Cookers
,”
Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.
,
15
(6), pp.
3301
3318
.
4.
Scheffler
,
W.
,
Bruecke
,
S.
, and
von Werdenbergstr
,
G.
,
2006
, “
Introduction to the Revolutionary Design of Scheffler Reflectors
,”
International Solar Cooker Conference
, Granada, Spain, July 12–16, pp. 12–6.http://solare-bruecke.org/infoartikel/Papers_%20from_SCI_Conference_2006/21_wolfgang_scheffler.pdf
5.
Munir
,
A.
, and
Hensel
,
O.
,
2009
, “
Solar Distillation for Essential Oils Extraction—A Decentralized Approach for Rural Development
,”
International Solar Food Processing Conference
, Witzenhausen, Germany, Jan 14–16, pp. 1–5.http://images3.wikia.nocookie.net/solarcooking/images/9/93/Solar_distillation_for_essential_oils_extraction_-_a_decentralised_approach_for_rural_development_-_Ing._Anjum_Munir_2009_and_Dr._Oliver_Hensel.pdf
6.
Nandwani
,
S. S.
,
1996
, “
Solar Cookers Cheap Technology With High Ecological Benefits
,”
Ecol. Econ.
,
17
(2), pp.
73
81
.
7.
Rincón
,
E. A.
,
Fidel
,
A.
, and
Jaramillo
,
O.
,
2002
, “
Ray Tracing Procedures for Optimizing a Novel Solar Hot Plate for Cooking
,”
XXVI National Energy Week Conference
, Chetumal, México, p.
7
.
8.
Rincón
,
E. A.
, and
Herrera
,
A. L.
,
2008
, “
The SOLAR Cooker TOLOKATSIN3
,”
Conference: XIV Iberian Congress and IX Ibero-American Congress of Energy, Vigo
, Spain, pp. 617–622.
9.
Mondal
,
A.
, and
Data
,
A. K.
,
2008
, “
Bread Baking—A Review
,”
J. Food Eng.
,
86
(
4
), pp.
465
474
.
10.
Zhang
,
J.
, and
Data
,
A. K.
,
2006
, “
Mathematical Modeling of Bread Baking Process
,”
J. Food Eng.
,
75
(
1
), pp.
78
89
.
11.
Mahavar
,
S.
,
Sengar
,
N.
, and
Dashora
,
P.
,
2017
, “
Analytical Model for Electric Back-Up Power Estimation of Solar Box Type Cooker
,”
Energy
,
134
, pp.
871
881
.
12.
Ayub
,
I.
,
Munir
,
A.
,
Amjad
,
W.
,
Ghafoor
,
A.
, and
Nasir
,
M. S.
,
2018
, “
Energy- and Exergy-Based Thermal Analyses of a Solar Bakery Unit
,”
J. Therm. Anal. Calorim.
(in press).
13.
Hassen
,
A.
,
Kebedy
,
S. B.
, and
Wihib
,
N. M.
,
2016
, “
Design and Manufacturing of Thermal Energy Based Injeria Baking Glass Pan
,”
Energy Procedia
,
93
, pp.
154
159
.
14.
Tesfay
,
A. H.
,
Kahsay
,
M. B.
, and
Nadal
,
O. J.
,
2013
, “
Design and Development of Solar Thermal Injeria Baking; Steam Based Direct Baking
,”
Energy Procedia
,
57
, pp.
2946
2955
.
15.
Tesfay
,
A. H.
,
Kahsay
,
M. B.
, and
Nadal
,
O. J.
,
2014
, “
Solar Powered Heat Storage for Injeria Baking in Ethopia
,”
Energy Procedia
,
57
, pp.
1603
1612
.
16.
Muller
,
C.
,
Ecoandia
,
F.
, and
Arias
,
C.
,
2009
, “
Solar Community Bakeries on the Argentinean Altiplano
,”
International Solar Food Conference
, Indore, India, Jan. 14–16, pp. 1–6.http://www.hc-solar.de/files/solarfood_2009_bakery.pdf
17.
Rincón
,
E. A.
,
2003
, “
Solar Ovens and Hot Plates for Cooking and Avoid Firewood Consumption
,”
International Seminar on Bioenergy and Sustainable Rural Development
, Morelia, Mexico, June 26–28, pp. 1–14.http://www.bioenergy-lamnet.org/publications/source/mex/PPT-WG5-5-Rincon-LAMNET-WS-Morelia.pdf
18.
Chhanwal
,
N.
,
Anishaparvin
,
A.
,
Indrani
,
D.
,
Raghavarao
,
K. S. M. S. C.
, and
Anandharamakrishnan
,
C.
,
2010
, “
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling of an Electrical Heating Oven for Bread-Baking Process
,”
J. Food Eng.
,
100
(
3
), pp.
452
460
.
19.
Schirmer
,
P.
,
Janjai
,
S.
,
Esper
,
A.
,
Smitabhindu
,
R.
, and
Muhlbaur
,
W.
,
1996
, “
Experimental Investigation of the Performance of the Solar Tunnel Dryer for Drying Bananas
,”
Renewable Energy
,
7
(
2
), pp.
119
129
.
20.
Funk
,
P. A.
,
2000
, “
Evaluating the International Standard Procedure for Testing Solar Cookers and Reporting Performance
,”
Sol. Energy
,
68
(
1
), pp.
1
7
.
21.
Holman
,
J. P.
,
1994
,
Experimental Methods for Engineers
,
6th ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
Singapore
.
22.
Shahapuzi
,
N. S.
,
Taip
,
F. S.
,
Ab Aziz
,
N.
, and
Ahmedov
,
A.
,
2015
, “
Effect of Oven Temperature Profile and Different Baking Conditions on Final Cake Quality
,”
Int. J. Food Sci. Technol.
,
50
(
3
), pp.
723
729
.
23.
Sabovics
,
M.
,
Straumite
,
E.
, and
Galoburda
,
R.
,
2014
, “
The Influence of Baking Temperature on the Quality of Triticale Bread
,”
Ninth Baltic Conference on Food Science and Technology “Food for Consumer Well-Being
”, Jelgava, Latvia, May 8–9, pp. 228–233.https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20143210585
You do not currently have access to this content.