The heat transfer characteristics of a rectangular water tank used in a solar water heating system with a Fresnel Len were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively through the theoretical and numerical methods. The water tank is 450 mm × 400 mm × 500 mm in size and consists of 15 layers of coil pipe placed at its center. The MIX number and exergy efficiency were studied to quantify the thermal stratification of this water tank. A flow field analysis was also carried out to understand the heat transfer mechanism inside the water tank. Results indicate that the Nusselt number of shell side is increased with the growth of Reynolds number. The MIX number suggested that the thermal stratification is enhanced and then reduced with increasing flow rate. A correlation is proposed to predict the Nusselt numbers on the shell side. A detailed flow field analysis indicated that the thermal stratification is highly related to the runoff time, buoyancy force, mixing process, and geometry of the water tank.

References

References
1.
Pérez-Lombard
,
L.
,
Ortiz
,
J.
, and
Pout
,
C.
,
2008
, “
A Review on Buildings Energy Consumption Information
,”
Energy Build.
,
40
(
3
), pp.
394
398
.
2.
Hu
,
M.
,
Pei
,
G.
,
Wang
,
Q.
,
Li
,
J.
,
Wang
,
Y.
, and
Ji
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Field Test and Preliminary Analysis of a Combined Diurnal Solar Heating and Nocturnal Radiative Cooling System
,”
Appl. Energy
,
179
, pp.
899
908
.
3.
Tian
,
Y.
, and
Zhao
,
C. Y.
,
2013
, “
A Review of Solar Collectors and Thermal Energy Storage in Solar Thermal Applications
,”
Appl. Energy
,
104
(
4
), pp.
538
553
.
4.
Bahria
,
S.
,
Amirat
,
M.
,
Hamidat
,
A.
,
Ganaoui
,
M. E.
, and
Slimani
,
M.
,
2016
, “
Parametric Study of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems in Different Climates of Algeria—A Comparison Between Conventional and High-Energy-Performance Buildings
,”
Energy
,
113
, pp.
521
535
.
5.
Orioli
,
A.
, and
Gangi
,
A. D.
,
2014
, “
Review of the Energy and Economic Parameters Involved in the Effectiveness of Grid-Connected PV Systems Installed in Multi-Storey Buildings
,”
Appl. Energy
,
113
(
1
), pp.
955
969
.
6.
Li
,
G.
,
Pei
,
G.
,
Ji
,
J.
, and
Su
,
Y.
,
2015
, “
Outdoor Overall Performance of a Novel Air-Gap-Lens-Walled Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ALCPC) Incorporated With Photovoltaic/Thermal System
,”
Appl. Energy
,
144
(
15
), pp.
214
223
.
7.
Gang
,
P.
,
Fu
,
H.
,
Tao
,
Z.
, and
Jie
,
J.
,
2011
, “
A Numerical and Experimental Study on a Heat Pipe PV/T System
,”
Sol. Energy
,
85
(
5
), pp.
911
921
.
8.
Erdemir
,
D.
, and
Altuntop
,
N.
,
2016
, “
Improved Thermal Stratification With Obstacles Placed Inside the Vertical Mantled Hot Water Tanks
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
100
, pp.
20
29
.
9.
Varghese
,
J.
,
Samsher
,
K.
, and
Manjunath
,
2017
, “
A Parametric Study of a Concentrating Integral Storage Solar Water Heater for Domestic Uses
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
111
, pp.
734
744
.
10.
Zhao
,
B.
,
Yang
,
X.
,
Gao
,
D. K.
,
Shi
,
C. J.
,
Xu
,
L. Z.
, and
Zhang
,
Y. Y.
,
2016
, “
Application of Gabor Finite Element Method for Oil Tank Stratification in Solar Energy System
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
107
, pp.
1130
1137
.
11.
Janssen
,
L. A. M.
, and
Hoogendoorn
,
C. J.
,
1978
, “
Laminar Convective Heat Transfer in Helical Coiled Tubes
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
21
(
9
), pp.
1197
1206
.
12.
Salimpour
,
M. R.
,
2009
, “
Heat Transfer Coefficients of Shell and Coiled Tube Heat Exchangers
,”
Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
,
33
(
2
), pp.
203
207
.
13.
Alimoradi
,
A.
, and
Veysi
,
F.
,
2016
, “
Prediction of Heat Transfer Coefficients of Shell and Coiled Tube Heat Exchangers Using Numerical Method and Experimental Validation
,”
Int. J. Therm. Sci.
,
107
, pp.
196
208
.
14.
Pimenta
,
T. A.
, and
Campos
,
J. B. L. M.
,
2013
, “
Heat Transfer Coefficients From Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids Flowing in Laminar Regime in a Helical Coil
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
58
(
1–2
), pp.
676
690
.
15.
Moawed
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Experimental Study of Forced Convection From Helical Coiled Tubes With Different Parameters
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
52
(
2
), pp.
1150
1156
.
16.
Naphon
,
P.
,
2007
, “
Thermal Performance and Pressure Drop of the Helical-Coil Heat Exchangers With and Without Helically Crimped Fins
,”
Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer
,
34
(
3
), pp.
321
330
.
17.
Moosavi
,
A.
,
Abbasalizadeh
,
M.
, and
Dizaji
,
H. S.
,
2016
, “
Optimization of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Characteristics Via Air Bubble Injection Inside a Shell and Coiled Tube Heat Exchanger
,”
Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
,
78
, pp.
1
9
.
18.
Dizaji
,
H. S.
,
Jafarmadar
,
S.
,
Abbasalizadeh
,
M.
, and
Khorasani
,
S.
,
2015
, “
Experiments on Air Bubbles Injection Into a Vertical Shell and Coiled Tube Heat Exchanger: Exergy and NTU Analysis
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
103
, pp.
973
980
.
19.
Beigzadeh
,
R.
, and
Rahimi
,
M.
,
2012
, “
Prediction of Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics in Helically Coiled Tubes Using Artificial Neural Networks
,”
Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer
,
39
(
8
), pp.
1279
1285
.
20.
Jayakumar
,
J. S.
,
Mahajani
,
S. M.
,
Mandal
,
J. C.
,
Vijayan
,
P. K.
, and
Bhoi
,
R.
,
2008
, “
Experimental and CFD Estimation of Heat Transfer in Helically Coiled Heat Exchangers
,”
Chem. Eng. Res. Des.
,
86
(
3
), pp.
221
232
.
21.
Jamshidi
,
N.
,
Farhadi
,
M.
,
Ganji
,
D. D.
, and
Sedighi
,
K.
,
2013
, “
Experimental Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in Shell and Helical Tube Heat Exchangers
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
51
(
1–2
), pp.
644
652
.
22.
Jayakumar
,
J. S.
,
Mahajani
,
S. M.
,
Mandal
,
J. C.
,
Iyer
,
K. N.
, and
Vijayan
,
P. K.
,
2010
, “
CFD Analysis of Single-Phase Flows Inside Helically Coiled Tubes
,”
Comput. Chem. Eng.
,
34
(
4
), pp.
430
446
.
23.
Mirgolbabaei
,
H.
,
Taherian
,
H.
,
Domairry
,
G.
, and
Ghorbani
,
N.
,
2011
, “
Numerical Estimation of Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Helically Coiled Tube Heat Exchangers
,”
Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids
,
66
(
7
), pp.
805
819
.
24.
Yang
,
Z.
,
Chen
,
H.
,
Wang
,
L.
,
Sheng
,
Y.
, and
Wang
,
Y.
,
2016
, “
Comparative Study of the Influences of Different Water Tank Shapes on Thermal Energy Storage Capacity and Thermal Stratification
,”
Renewable Energy
,
85
, pp.
31
44
.
25.
Karimi
,
F.
,
Xu
,
H.
,
Wang
,
Z.
,
Chen
,
J.
, and
Yang
,
M.
,
2017
, “
Experimental Study of a Concentrated PV/T System Using Linear Fresnel Lens
,”
Energy
,
123
, pp.
402
412
.
26.
Baeten
,
B.
,
Confrey
,
T.
,
Pecceu
,
S.
,
Rogiers
,
F.
, and
Helsen
,
L.
,
2016
, “
A Validated Model for Mixing and Buoyancy in Stratified Hot Water Storage Tanks for Use in Building Energy Simulations
,”
Appl. Energy
,
172
, pp.
217
229
.
27.
Andersen
,
E.
,
Furbo
,
S.
, and
Fan
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Multilayer Fabric Stratification Pipes for Solar Tanks
,”
Sol. Energy
,
81
(
10
), pp.
1219
1226
.
28.
Shah
,
L. J.
, and
Furbo
,
S.
,
2003
, “
Entrance Effects in Solar Storage Tanks
,”
Sol. Energy
,
75
(
4
), pp.
337
348
.
29.
Rosen
,
M. A.
,
Tang
,
R.
, and
Dincer
,
I.
,
2004
, “
Effect of Stratification on Energy and Exergy Capacities in Thermal Storage Systems
,”
Int. J. Energy Res.
,
28
(
2
), pp.
177
193
.
You do not currently have access to this content.