This paper presents a comprehensive study of the evaluation of the effect of spar cap fiber orientation angle of composite blades with induced bending–torsion coupling (IBTC) on the aero-structural performance wind turbines. Aero-structural performance of wind turbines with IBTC blades is evaluated with the fatigue load mitigation in the whole wind turbine system, tower clearances, peak stresses in the blades, and power generation of wind turbines. For this purpose, a full E-glass/epoxy reference blade has been designed, following the inverse design methodology for a 5-MW wind turbine. An E-glass/epoxy blade with IBTC and novel, hybrid E-glass/carbon/epoxy blades with IBTC have been designed and aeroelastic time-marching multibody simulations of the 5-MW turbine systems, with the reference blade and the blades with IBTC, have been carried out using six different randomly generated turbulent wind profiles. Fatigue-equivalent loads (FELs) in the wind turbine have been determined as an average of the results obtained from the time response of six different simulations. The results reveal that certain hybrid blade designs with IBTC are more effective in fatigue load mitigation than the E-glass–epoxy blade with IBTC, and besides the fiber orientation angle, sectional properties of hybrid blades must be adjusted accordingly using proper number of carbon/epoxy layers in the sections of the blade with IBTC, in order to simultaneously reduce generator power losses and the FEL.

References

References
1.
Karaolis
,
N. M.
,
Musgrove, P. J.
, and
Jeronimidis, G.
,
1988
, “
Active and Passive Aerodynamic Power Control Using Asymmetric Fibre Reinforced Laminates for Wind Turbine Blades
,” Tenth British Wind Energy Conference, London, Mar. 22–24, pp. 163–172.
2.
Zhou
,
X.
,
An
,
L.
, and
Wang
,
Z.
,
2012
, “
Twist-Bend Coupling Analysis for Five-Megawatt Wind Turbine Blades
,”
Appl. Mech. Mater.
,
152–154
, pp.
703
708
.
3.
Jonkman
,
B. J.
,
Butterfield
,
S.
,
Musial
,
W.
, and
Scott
,
G.
,
2009
, “
Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine Offshore System Development
,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Report No.
NREL/TP-500-38060
.https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/38060.pdf
4.
Lobitz
,
D. W.
, and
Veers
,
P. S.
,
2003
, “
Load Mitigation With Bending/Twist-Coupled Blades on Rotors Using Modern Control Strategies
,”
Wind Energy
,
6
(
2
), pp.
105
117
.
5.
Lin
,
H. J.
, and
Lai
,
W. M.
,
2010
, “
A Study of Elastic Coupling to the Wind Turbine Blade by Combined Analytical and Finite Element Beam Model
,”
J. Compos. Mater.
,
44
(
23
), pp.
2643
2665
.
6.
Locke
,
J.
, and
Valencia
,
U.
,
2004
, “
Design Studies for Twist-Coupled Wind Turbine Blades
,” Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, Report No.
SAND2004-0522
.http://windpower.sandia.gov/other/040522.pdf
7.
Gözcü
,
M. O.
,
Olgun
,
M. N.
, and
Kayran
,
A.
,
2014
, “
Investigation of the Effect of Off-Axis Spar Cap Plies on Fatigue Equivalent Loads in Wind Turbines With Super Element Blade Definition
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2014-1223.
8.
Wetzel
,
K. K.
,
2005
, “
Utility Scale Twist-Flap Coupled Blade Design
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
127
(
4
), pp.
529
537
.
9.
Bottasso
,
C.
,
Campagnolo
,
F.
,
Croce
,
A.
, and
Tibaldi
,
C.
,
2013
, “
Optimization-Based Study of Bend–Twist Coupled Rotor Blades for Passive and Integrated Passive/Active Load Alleviation
,”
Wind Energy
,
16
(8), pp.
1149
1166
.
10.
Hayat
,
K.
, and
Ha
,
S. K.
,
2015
, “
Load Mitigation of Wind Turbine Blade by Aeroelastic Tailoring Via Unbalanced Laminates Composites
,”
Compos. Struct.
,
128
, pp.
122
133
.
11.
IEC
,
2005
, “
Wind Turbines—Part 1: Design Requirements
,” International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No.
61400-1
.https://webstore.iec.ch/preview/info_iec61400-1%7Bed3.0%7Den.pdf
12.
Siemens PLM Software, 2012, “
LMS Samtech Samcef Wind Turbines User Help, Version 3.3
,” Siemens, Inc., Leuven, Belgium.
13.
Lindenburg
,
C.
,
2012
, “
PHATAS Release ‘JAN-2012a’ User's Manual, Program for Horizontal Axis wind Turbine Analysis and Simulation
,” Knowledge Center WMC, Wieringerweft, The Netherlands, Technical Report No. ECN-I-05-005 r10.
14.
Yu
,
W.
,
Ho
,
J. C.
, and
Hodges
,
D. H.
,
2012
, “
Variational Asymptotic Beam Sectional Analysis—An Updated Version
,”
Int. J. Eng. Sci.
,
59
, pp.
40
64
.
15.
Siemens PLM Software, 2016, “
LMS Samtech Samcef Solver Suite
,” Siemens, Inc., Leuven, Belgium, accessed Mar. 2, 2018, https://www.plm.automation.siemens.com/en/products/lms/samtech/samcef-solver-suite/
16.
Jonkman
,
B. J.
,
2009
, “
TurbSim User's Guide: Version 1.50
,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Technical Report No.
NREL/TP-500-46198
.https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/46198.pdf
17.
Winkelaar
,
D.
,
1992
, “
SWIFT Program for Three-Dimensional Wind Simulation Part 1: Model Description and Program Verification
,” Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten, The Netherlands, Technical Report No. ECN-R-92-013.
18.
Shigley
,
J. E.
, and
Mitchell
,
L. D.
,
1983
,
Mechanical Engineering Design
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
19.
Mandell
,
J. F.
, and
Samborsky
,
D. D.
,
1997
, “
DOE/MSU Composite Material Fatigue Database: Test Methods, Materials, and Analysis
,” Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, Report No.
SAND97-3002
.http://energy-dev.sandia.gov/wp-content/uploads/dlm_uploads/2016/08/973002.pdf
20.
Söker
,
H.
,
Kieselhorst
,
S.
, and
Royo
,
R.
,
2004
, “
Load Monitoring on a Mainshaft: A Case Study
,”
Seventh German Wind Energy Conference (DEWEK 2004)
, Wilhelmshaven, Germany, Oct. 20–21, pp. 1–5.
You do not currently have access to this content.