Solar dryer with thermal energy storage device is an essential topic for food drying applications in industries. In this work, a two-dimensional (2D) numerical model is developed for the application of solar drying of agricultural products in an indirect type solar dryer. The phase-change material (PCM) used in this work is paraffin wax. The study has been performed on a single set of concentric tube which consists of a finned inner copper tube for air flow and an outer plastic tube for PCM material. The practical domain is modeled using ANSYS, and computer simulations were performed using ANSYS fluent 2015. The air velocity and temperature chosen for this study are based on the observation of indirect type solar dryer experimental setup. From this numerical analysis, the temperature distribution, melting, and solidification fraction of PCM are estimated at different air flow velocities, time, and inlet temperature of air. It is concluded that the drying operation can be performed up to 10.00 p.m. as the PCM transfers heat to inlet air up to 10.00 p.m. and before it got charged up to 3.00 p.m. because of solar radiation. The maximum outlet temperature is 341.62 K (68.62 °C) which is suitable for food drying applications. Higher air flow velocity enhances quick melting of PCM during charging time and quick cooling during recharging of inlet air; therefore, higher air flow velocity is not preferred for food drying during cooling of PCM.

References

References
1.
Shalaby
,
S. M.
, and
Bek
,
M. A.
,
2014
, “
Experimental Investigation of a Novel Indirect Solar Dryer Implementing PCM as Energy Storage Medium
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
83
, pp.
1
8
.
2.
Zhao
,
W.
,
France
,
D. M.
,
Yu
,
W.
,
Kim
,
T.
, and
Singh
,
D.
,
2014
, “
Phase Change Material With Graphite Foam for Applications in High-Temperature Latent Heat Storage Systems of Concentrated Solar Power Plants
,”
Renewable Energy
,
69
, pp.
134
146
.
3.
Bal
,
L. M.
,
Satya
,
S.
, and
Naik
,
S. N.
,
2011
, “
Solar Dryer With Thermal Energy Storage Systems for Drying Agricultural Food Products: A Review
,”
Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.
,
15
(1), pp.
876
880
.
4.
El-Sebaii
,
A. A.
,
Aboul-Eneein
,
S.
,
Ramadan
,
M. R. I.
, and
EL-Bialy
,
E.
,
2007
, “
Year Round Performance of Double Pass Solar Air Heater With Packed Bed
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
48
(
3
), pp.
990
1003
.
5.
Cakmak
,
G.
, and
Yidiz
,
C.
,
2011
, “
The Drying Kinetics of Seeded Grape in Solar Dryer With PCM-Based Solar Integrated Collector
,”
Food Bioprod. Process.
,
89
, pp.
103
108
.
6.
Bouhssine
,
Z.
,
Najam
,
M.
, and
El-Alami
,
M.
,
2016
, “
Phase Change Material for Solar Thermal Energy Storage in Buildings: Numerical Study
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
138
(
6
), p.
061006
.
7.
Arasu
,
A. V.
, and
Mujumdar
,
A. S.
,
2012
, “
Numerical Study on Melting of Paraffin Wax With Al2O3 in a Square Enclosure
,”
Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer
,
39
(
1
), pp.
8
16
.
8.
Lafdi
,
K.
,
Mesalhy
,
O.
, and
Elgafy
,
A.
,
2008
, “
Graphite Foams Infiltrated With Phase Change Materials as Alternative Materials for Space and Terrestrial Thermal Energy Storage Applications
,”
Carbon
,
46
(
1
), pp.
159
168
.
9.
Dutil
,
Y.
,
Nizar
,
D. R. R.
,
Salah
,
B.
,
Lassue
,
S.
, and
Zalewski
,
L.
,
2011
, “
A Review on Phase-Change Materials: Mathematical Modeling and Simulations: A Review
,”
Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.
,
15
(
1
), pp.
112
130
.
10.
Sharma
,
S. D.
, and
Sagara
,
K.
,
2005
, “
Latent Heat Storage Materials and Systems: A Review
,”
Int. J. Green Energy
,
2
(
1
), pp.
1
56
.
11.
Steinmann
,
W.
,
Laing
,
D.
, and
Tamme
,
R.
,
2010
, “
Latent Heat Storage Systems for Solar Thermal Power Plants and Process Heat Applications
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
132
(
2
), p.
021003
.
12.
Karunesh
,
K.
,
Shukla
,
A.
, and
Sharma
,
A.
,
2016
, “
Performance Evaluation of Fatty Acids as Phase Change Material for Thermal Energy Storage
,”
J. Energy Storage
,
6
, pp.
153
162
.
13.
Khodadadi
,
J. M.
, and
Hosseinizadeh
,
S. M.
,
2007
, “
Nanoparticle-Enhanced Phase Change Materials (NEPCM) With Great Potential for Improved Thermal Energy Storage
,”
Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer
,
34
(
5
), pp.
534
543
.
14.
Liu
,
Z.
,
Li
,
H.
,
Zhang
,
X.
,
Jin
,
G.
, and
Cheng
,
K.
,
2015
, “
Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine
,”
Energies
,
8
(
12
), pp.
8814
8834
.
15.
Liu
,
Z.
,
Li
,
H.
,
Liu
,
K.
,
Yu
,
H.
, and
Cheng
,
K.
,
2017
, “
Design of High-Performance Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters by a High-Throughput Screening Based on Machine Learning: A Combined Modeling and Experimental Study
,”
Sol. Energy
,
142
, pp.
61
67
.
16.
Alipanah
,
M.
, and
Li
,
X.
,
2016
, “
Numerical Studies of Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal Management Systems Using Phase Change Materials and Metal Foams
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
102
, pp.
1159
1168
.
17.
Abhay
,
L.
,
Chandramohan
,
V. P.
, and
Raju
,
V. R. K.
,
2017
, “
Design, Development and Performance of Indirect Type Solar Dryer for Banana Drying
,”
Energy Procedia
,
109
, pp.
409
416
.
18.
Arunsandeep
,
G.
,
Abhay
,
L.
,
Razatkumar
,
N.
,
Chandramohan
,
V. P.
, and
Raju
,
V. R. K.
,
2017
, “
Numerical Solution and It's Analysis During Solar Drying of Green Peas
,”
J. Inst. Eng. (India): Ser. C
, epub.
19.
Shanmugam
,
S.
,
Kumar
,
P.
, and
Veerappan
,
A. R.
,
2013
, “
Modeling and Experimental Studies on Oscillating Inclined-Bed Solar Dryer
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
135
(
3
), p.
031009
.
20.
Yang
,
Y.
, and
Wang
,
Y.
,
2012
, “
Numerical Simulation of Three Dimensional Transient Cooling Application on a Portable Electronic Device Using Phase Change Material
,”
Int. J. Therm. Sci.
,
51
, pp.
155
162
.
21.
Robert
,
R. C.
, and
Thomas
,
S. K.
,
1996
,
The Properties of Gases and Liquids
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
22.
Brent
,
A. D.
,
Voller
,
V. R.
, and
Reid
,
K. J.
,
1988
, “
Enthalpy-Porosity Technique for Modeling Convection-Diffusion Phase Change: Application to the Melting of a Pure Metal
,”
Numer. Heat Transfer
,
13
(
3
), pp.
297
318
.
23.
Kays
,
W. M.
, and
Crawford
,
M. E.
,
1993
,
Convective Heat and Mass Transfer
, 3rd ed.,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
24.
Humphries
,
W.
, and
Griggs
,
E.
,
1977
, “A Design Handbook for Phase Change Thermal Control and Energy Storage Devices,” NASA Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, VA, NASA Technical Report No.
NASA-TP-1074
.https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780007491
25.
Mujumdar
,
S.
,
2006
,
Handbook of Industrial Drying
, 3rd ed.,
CRC Press
,
Boca Raton, FL
.
You do not currently have access to this content.