This study presents a numerical optimization of a ducted wind turbine (DWT) to maximize power output. The cross section of the duct was an Eppler 423 airfoil, which is a cambered airfoil with a high lift coefficient (CL). The rotor was modeled as an actuator disk, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) k–ε model was used to simulate the flow. The optimization determined the optimal placement and angle for the duct relative to the rotor disk, as well as the optimal coefficient of thrust for the rotor. It was determined that the optimal coefficient of thrust is similar to an open rotor in spite of the fact that the local flow velocity is modified by the duct. The optimal angle of attack of the duct was much larger than the separation angle of attack of the airfoil in a freestream. Large angles of attack did not induce separation on the duct because the expansion caused by the rotor disk helped keep the flow attached. For the same rotor area, the power output of the largest DWT was 66% greater than an open rotor. For the same total cross-sectional area of the entire device, the DWT also outperformed an open rotor, exceeding Betz's limit by a small margin.

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