The integration between renewable energy systems (RESs) and oil shale system ensures reliable power generation source with a competitive energy generation cost when compared to costs of conventional systems. In addition, this integration will prevent considerable amount of CO2 emissions. This study aims to determine the size of a grid-tied hybrid system in Al-Tafilah, Jordan that maximizes the yearly overall fraction of demand met with levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) equal to or lower than the local cost of electricity generation. In addition, the effect of the integration of lithium-ion batteries as short-term energy storage systems (ESSs) will be investigated in addition to the effect of carbon social cost on the economics of the system. The maximum FH by the hybrid system in Al-Tafilah is 97.2% with ESS and 96.9% without ESS where 70.4% of the demand is met by the 12 MW oil shale system; however, to achieve these fractions, enormous installed capacity of photovoltaic (PV) and wind is required where 99% of the energy production is excess and LCOE is larger than . The maximum FH with LCOE equals to COEcon can be achieved by 12 MW oil shale, 3.5 MW PV, and 6 MW wind turbines without ESS. Such size will have FH of 87.23%, capacity factor of 46.1%, RES fraction of 16.9%, net present value (NPV) of 34.8 million USD, and a payback period of 4.8 years.
Sizing of a Photovoltaic-Wind-Oil Shale Hybrid System: Case Analysis in Jordan
Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 2, 2017; final manuscript received August 29, 2017; published online October 17, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Geoffrey T. Klise.
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AL-Ghussain, L., Taylan, O., and Fahrioglu, M. (October 17, 2017). "Sizing of a Photovoltaic-Wind-Oil Shale Hybrid System: Case Analysis in Jordan." ASME. J. Sol. Energy Eng. February 2018; 140(1): 011002. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4038048
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