Reverse osmosis (RO) technique is one of most efficient methods to desalinate the salt water. An accurate and detailed experimental method was established to analyze the performance of the unpotable water RO process, which is the solution-diffusion and mass transfer theory. The RO is going to be operated using an alternative energy source, solar energy. The solar cells are utilized to run the RO unit with a single vertical membrane. DC current is produced by a solar panel which produces 18 maximum volt and 4.25 maximum DC current. The solar panel was utilized to run out the DC booster pump without using an inverter. The production of freshwater is the major studied parameter in this project with other parameters, such as the efficiency of the RO unit and the salt rejection percentage (610 max PPM). The experimental work provides a more detailed understanding of solar RO unit in order to be utilized in the remote areas.

References

References
1.
Almualeg
,
M.
, and
Bogsha
,
S.
,
2008
, “
The Reality and the Prospects for Water Desalination in the Arab World and the Possibility of the Use of Renewable Energies
,” IRENA, Kuwait.
2.
Shannon
,
M. A.
,
Bohn
,
P. W.
,
Elimelech
,
M.
,
Goergiadis
,
J. G.
,
Marias
,
B. J.
, and
Mayes
,
A. M.
,
2008
, “
Science and Technology for Water Purification in the Coming Decades
,”
Nature
,
452
(
7185
), pp.
301
310
.
3.
Wanginick
,
K.
,
2002
, “
IDA World Desalting Plants Inventory
,” Wangnick Consulting GmbH, Gnarrenburg, Germany, Report No. 17.
4.
Van der Burggen
,
B.
, and
Vandecasteeele
,
C.
,
2002
, “
Desalination vs. Membrane Filtration: Overview of Process Evolution in Seawater Desalination
,”
Desalination
,
143
(
3
), pp.
207
218
.
5.
Ebrahim
,
S.
, and
Abdel-Jawad
,
M.
,
1994
, “
Economic of Seawater Desalination by Reverse Osmosis
,”
Desalination
,
99
(
1
), pp.
39
55
.
6.
Buros
,
O. K.
,
The ABCS of Desalting
,
International Desalination Association
,
Topsfield, MA
, p.
200
.
7.
Garud
,
R. M.
,
Kore
,
S. V.
,
Kore
,
V. S.
, and
Kulkarni
,
G. S.
,
2011
, “
A Short Review on Process and Applications of Reverse Osmosis
,”
Univers. J. Environ. Res. Technol.
,
1
(
3
), pp.
233
238
.http://environmentaljournal.org/1-3/ujert-1-3-2.pdf
8.
Derickson, R.
,
Bergsrud, F.
, and
Seelig, B.
,
1992
, “
Treatment Systems for Household Water Supplies
,” North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, accessed Sept. 25, 2017, https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/h2oqual/watsys/ae1032.pdf
9.
Kozisek
,
F.
,
2003
,
Health Risks From Drinking Demineralized Water
, Vol. 12, National Institute of Public Health, Prague, Czech Republic, pp. 148–163.
10.
Beer
,
F. P.
, and
Johnston
,
E. R.
,
2006
,
Mechanics of Materials
,
5th ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
, Stamford, CT, p.
210
.
11.
AWWA
,
2001
,
Reverse Osmosis and Nano-Filtration
, American Water Works Association, Denver, CO.
12.
Amjad
,
Z.
,
1992
,
Reverse Osmosis: Membrane Technology, Water Chemistry, and Industrial Applications
,
Chapman & Hall
,
New York
.
You do not currently have access to this content.