This study compares the potential annual energy absorption of a flat-plate solar collector at different tilt angles in Poland. Optimal tilt angles were tested in three variants: over the course of the year, in fall/winter and in spring/summer. The results were compared with automatically tracked collectors where the active surface is perpendicular to the angle at which solar radiation reaches the collector. The results were simulated based on the meteorological data. A comparison of the energy outputs of solar collectors in optimization variants 1, 2, and 3 indicates that variant 1 produces the highest energy output.

References

References
1.
Duffie
,
J. A.
, and
Beckman
,
W. A.
,
2013
,
Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
2.
Pluta
,
Z.
,
2013
,
Theory of Photothermal Conversion of Solar Energy
,
Publishing House of the Warsaw University of Technology
,
Warsaw, Poland
.
3.
Horta
,
P.
,
Carvalho
,
M. J.
,
Pereira
,
M. C.
, and
Carbaja
,
W.
,
2008
, “
Long-Term Performance Calculations Based on Steady-State Efficiency Test Results: Analysis of Optical Effects Affecting Beam, Diffuse and Reflected Radiation
,”
Sol. Energy
,
82
(
11
), pp.
1076
1082
.
4.
Kumar
,
S.
, and
Mullick
,
S. C.
,
2012
, “
Glass Cover Temperature and Top Heat Loss Coefficient of a Single Glazed Flat Plate Collector With Nearly Vertical Configuration
,”
Ain Shams Eng. J.
,
3
(
3
), pp.
299
304
.
5.
Nguyen
,
K.-B.
,
Yoon
,
S.-H.
, and
Choi
,
J. H.
,
2012
, “
Effect of Working-Fluid Filling Ratio and Cooling-Water Flow Rate on the Performance of Solar Collector With Closed-Loop Oscillating Heat Pipe
,”
J. Mech. Technol.
,
26
(
1
), pp.
251
258
.
6.
Sanaye
,
S.
, and
Hajabdollahi
,
H.
,
2014
, “
Thermo-Economic Optimization of Solar CCHP Using Both Genetic and Particle Swarm Algorithms
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
137
(
1
), p.
011001
.
7.
Agarwal
,
V. K.
, and
Larson
,
D. C.
,
1981
, “
Calculation of the Top Loss Coefficient of a Flat-Plate Collector
,”
Sol. Energy
,
27
(
1
), pp.
69
71
.
8.
Klein
,
S. A.
,
1975
, “
Calculation of Flat-Plate Collector Loss Coefficients
,”
Sol. Energy
,
17
(
1
), pp.
79
80
.
9.
Yakup
,
M. A. M.
, and
Malik
,
A. Q.
,
2001
, “
Optimum Tilt Angle and Orientation for Solar Collector in Brunei Darussalam
,”
Renewable Energy
,
24
(
2
), pp.
223
234
.
10.
Shariah
,
A.
,
Al-Akhras
,
M. A.
, and
Al-Omari
,
I. A.
,
2002
, “
Optimizing the Tilt Angle of Solar Collectors
,”
Renewable Energy
,
26
(
4
), pp.
587
598
.
11.
Gunerhan
,
H.
, and
Hepbasli
,
A.
,
2007
, “
Determination of the Optimum Tilt Angle of Solar Collectors for Building Applications
,”
Build. Sci.
,
42
(
2
), pp.
779
783
.
12.
Bari
,
S.
,
2000
, “
Optimum Slope Angle and Orientation of Solar Collectors for Different Periods of Possible Utilization
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
41
(
8
), pp.
855
860
.
13.
Tang
,
R.
, and
Wu
,
T.
,
2004
, “
Optimal Tilt-Angles for Solar Collectors Used in China
,”
Appl. Energy
,
79
(
3
), pp.
239
248
.
14.
Benghanem
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Optimization of Tilt Angle for Solar Panel: Case Study for Madinah, Saudi Arabia
,”
Appl. Energy
,
88
(
4
), pp.
1427
1433
.
15.
Bakirci
,
K.
,
2012
, “
Correlations for Optimum Tilt Angles of Solar Collectors: A Case Study in Erzurum, Turkey
,”
Energy Sources Part A
,
34
(
11
), pp.
983
993
.
16.
European Solar Thermal Industry Federation
, 2015, “
The Solar Keymark Database
,” European Solar Thermal Industry Federation, Brussel, Belgium, accessed Nov. 22, 2015, http://www.solarkeymark.dk/collectorcertificates
17.
Cooper
,
P. I.
,
1969
, “
The Absorption of Radiation in Solar Stills
,”
Sol. Energy
,
12
(
3
), pp.
333
346
.
18.
Lamm
,
L. O.
,
1981
, “
A New Analytic Expression for the Equation of Time
,”
Sol. Energy
,
26
(
5
), p.
465
.
19.
Pascoe
,
D. J. B.
,
1985
, “
Comments on Solar Position Programs: Refraction, Sidereal Time and Sunset/Sunrise
,”
Sol. Energy
,
34
(
2
), pp.
205
206
.
20.
Blanc
,
Ph.
, and
Wald
,
L.
,
2012
, “
The SG2 Algorithm for a Fast and Accurate Computation of the Position of the Sun for Multi-Decadal Time Period
,”
Sol. Energy
,
86
(
10
), pp.
3072
3083
.
21.
Keller
,
C.
, and
Hall
,
J. K.
,
2000
, “
Using a Digital Terrain Model to Calculate Visual Sunrise and Sunset Times
,”
Comput. Geosci.
,
26
(
9–10
), pp.
991
1000
.
22.
Grena
,
R.
,
2012
, “
Five New Algorithms for the Computation of Sun Position From 2010 to 2110
,”
Sol. Energy
,
86
(
5
), pp.
1323
1337
.
23.
Fathi
,
N. Y.
, and
Samer
,
A.
,
2016
, “
View Factors of Flat Solar Collectors Array in Flat, Inclined, and Step-Like Solar Fields
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
138
(
6
), p.
061005
.
24.
Fleck
,
B. A.
,
Meier
,
R. M.
, and
Matović
,
M. D.
,
2002
, “
A Field Study of the Wind Effects on the Performance of an Unglazed Transpired Solar Collector
,”
Sol. Energy
,
73
(
3
), pp.
209
216
.
25.
Kumar
,
S.
, and
Mullick
,
S. C.
,
2010
, “
Wind Heat Transfer Coefficient in Solar Collectors in Outdoor Conditions
,”
Sol. Energy
,
84
(
6
), pp.
956
963
.
26.
Latala
,
H.
,
2007
, “
Absorber Efficiency in Function of Ambient Temperature and Operating Parameters of Liquid Collector
,”
Agric. Eng.
,
9
(
97
), pp.
127
134
.
You do not currently have access to this content.