Buildings account for a significant portion of the total energy consumption in the U.S., especially the energy-inefficient commercial building sector. As part of the future path toward realizing net zero energy buildings, innovative energy-efficient technologies must be developed. In this study, the potential of phase-change material (PCM)-enhanced constructions to lower heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) energy consumption in a commercial restaurant building was investigated. A commercially available fatty acid based PCM product was selected due to their promising thermal and chemical properties. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used in isothermal step mode to accurately measure the latent heat energy storage of the PCM. A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial reference building model with a PCM-enhanced ceiling was simulated using a finite-difference conduction heat transfer algorithm in EnergyPlus to determine the effects of the PCM on the building energy performance. It was found that, although the PCM-enhanced ceiling had a beneficial stabilizing effect on the interior surface temperature of the ceiling, the zone mean air temperatures were not significantly altered. As such, minimal HVAC energy savings were seen. Future work should focus on active PCM systems, which utilize heat exchanging fluids to discharge the PCM to remove the stored thermal energy of the PCM during the night in summer, overcoming the fundamental issue of the passive PCM system returning stored thermal energy back into the building.

References

References
1.
U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
,
2008
, “
Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings
,” accessed Mar. 18, 2012, http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/corporate/bt_stateindustry.pdf
2.
U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
,
2010
, “
Zero Energy Commercial Buildings Consortium
,” accessed Mar. 18, 2012, http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/commercial_initiative/comm_bldg_consortium_fs.pdf
3.
Tabares-Velasco
,
P.
,
Christensen
,
C.
, and
Bianchi
,
M.
,
2012
, “
Verification and Validation of EnergyPlus Phase Change Material Model for Opaque Wall Assemblies
,”
Build. Environ.
,
54
, pp.
186
196
.
4.
Deru
,
M.
,
Field
,
K.
,
Studer
,
D.
,
Benne
,
K.
,
Griffith
,
B.
,
Torcellini
,
P.
,
Liu
,
B.
,
Halverson
,
M.
,
Winiarski
,
D.
,
Rosenberg
,
M.
,
Yazdanian
,
M.
,
Huang
,
J.
, and
Crawley
,
D.
,
2011
, “
U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Reference Building Models of the National Building Stock
,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO,
Report No. NREL/TP-5500-46861
.
5.
Kosny
,
J.
, and
Yarbrough
,
D. W.
,
2009
, “
Use of PCM-Enhanced Insulation in the Building Envelope
,”
J. Build. Enclosure Des.
,
5
, pp.
55
59
.
6.
Chan
,
A.
,
2011
, “
Energy and Environmental Performance of Building Facades Integrated With Phase Change Material in Subtropical Hong Kong
,”
Energy Build.
,
43
(
10
), pp.
2947
2955
.
7.
Shrestha
,
S.
,
Miller
,
W.
,
Stovall
,
T.
,
Desjarlais
,
A.
,
Childs
,
K.
,
Porter
,
W.
,
Bhandari
,
M.
, and
Cooley
,
S.
,
2011
, “
Modeling PCM-Enhanced Insulation System and Benchmarking EnergyPlus Against Controlled Field Data
,”
Building Simulation 2011: 12th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association
, Sydney, Australia, Nov. 14–16, pp. 800–807.
8.
Khudhair
,
A.
, and
Farid
,
M.
,
2004
, “
A Review on Energy Conservation in Building Applications With Thermal Storage by Latent Heat Using Phase Change Materials
,”
Energy Conserv. Manage.
,
45
(
2
), pp.
263
275
.
9.
Kośny
,
J.
,
2015
,
PCM-Enhanced Building Components
(Engineering Materials and Processes),
Springer International Publishing
,
Cham, Switzerland
.
10.
Soares
,
N.
,
Costa
,
J. J.
,
Gaspar
,
A. R.
, and
Santos
,
P.
,
2013
, “
Review of Passive PCM Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems Towards Buildings' Energy Efficiency
,”
Energy Build.
,
59
, pp.
82
103
.
11.
Ismail
,
K.
, and
Castro
,
J.
,
1997
, “
PCM Thermal Insulation in Buildings
,”
Int. J. Energy Res.
,
21
(
14
), pp.
1281
1296
.
12.
Kuznik
,
F.
,
David
,
D.
,
Johannes
,
K.
, and
Roux
,
J.-J.
,
2011
, “
A Review on Phase Change Materials Integrated in Building Walls
,”
Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.
,
15
(
1
), pp.
379
391
.
13.
Shazim
,
A. M.
,
2014
, “
Phase Change Materials Integrated in Building Walls: A State of the Art Review
,”
Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.
,
31
, pp.
870
906
.
14.
Fokaides
,
P.
,
Kylili
,
A.
, and
Soteris
,
A.
,
2015
, “
Phase Change Materials (PCMs) Integrated Into Transparent Building Elements: A Review
,”
Mater. Renewable Sustainable Energy
,
4
(
2
), p.
6
.
15.
Ismail
,
K.
,
Salinas
,
C.
, and
Henriquez
,
J.
,
2008
, “
Comparison Between PCM Filled Glass Windows and Absorbing Gas Filled Windows
,”
Energy Build.
,
40
(
5
), pp.
710
719
.
16.
Pokhrel
,
R.
,
González
,
J. E.
,
Hight
,
T.
, and
Adalsteinsson
,
T.
,
2010
, “
Analysis and Design of a Paraffin/Graphite Composite PCM Integrated in a Thermal Storage Unit
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
132
(
4
), p.
041006
.
17.
Muruganantham
,
K.
,
2010
, “
Application of Phase Change Material in Buildings: Field Data vs. EnergyPlus Simulation
,”
Master's thesis
, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.
18.
Kosny
,
J.
,
Stovall
,
T.
,
Shrestha
,
S.
, and
Yarbrough
,
D.
,
2010
, “
Theoretical and Experimental Thermal Performance Analysis of Complex Thermal Storage Membrane Containing Bio-Based Phase-Change Material (PCM)
,”
Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings XI
, Clearwater Beach, FL, Dec. 5–9.
19.
U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
,
2010
, “
Commercial Building Initiative: New Construction—Commercial Reference Buildings
,” accessed Apr. 9, 2012, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/commercial_initiative/new_construction.html
20.
Pedersen
,
C.
,
2007
, “
Advanced Zone Simulation in EnergyPlus: Incorporation of Variable Properties and Phase Change Material (PCM) Capability
,”
Building Simulation 2007
, Beijing, China, pp.
1341
1345
.
21.
LBNL
,
2011
, “
EnergyPlus Engineering Reference
,” Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA.
22.
Günther
,
E.
,
Hiebler
,
S.
,
Mehling
,
H.
, and
Redlich
,
R.
,
2009
, “
Enthalpy of Phase Change Materials as a Function of Temperature: Required Accuracy and Suitable Measurement Methods
,”
Int. J. Thermophys.
,
30
(
4
), pp.
1257
1269
.
23.
Jain
,
V.
,
Garg
,
V.
,
Mathur
,
J.
, and
Dhaka
,
S.
,
2011
, “
Effect of Operative Temperature Based Thermostat Control as Compared to Air Temperature Based Control on Energy Consumption in Highly Glazed Buildings
,”
Building Simulation 2011: 12th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association
, Sydney, Australia, Nov. 14–16, pp.
2688
2695
.
You do not currently have access to this content.