The aerodynamic characteristics of wakes in complex terrain have a profound impact on the energy yield of wind farms and on the fatigue loads on wind turbines in the wind farm. In order to detail the spatial variations of the wind speed, wind direction, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the near-wake, comprehensive drone-based measurements at a multi-megawatt (MW) wind turbine that is located in complex terrain have been conducted. A short-time Fourier transform (STFT)-based analysis method is used to derive time-localized TKE along the drone's trajectory. In upstream and in the near-wake, the vertical profiles of wind speed, wind direction, and TKE are detailed. There is an increase in the TKE from upstream to downstream of the wind turbine, and whereas, the characteristic microscale length scales increase with increasing height above the ground upstream of the turbine, in the near-wake the microscale lengths are of constant, smaller magnitude. The first-ever measurements of the pressure field across a multi-MW wind turbines rotor plane and of the tip vortices in the near-wake are also reported. It is shown that the pitch between subsequent tip vortices, which are shed from the wind turbines blades, increases in the near-wake as the wake evolves. These details of the near-wake can have an important effect on the subsequent evolution of the wake and must be incorporated into the three-dimensional (3D) field wake models that are currently under intensive development.

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