In the potential induced degradation (PID) phenomenon, the output power of a photovoltaic (PV) module decreases due to the high potential difference between the PV system and the ground. This voltage forcefully moves the positive charge in the module to the surface of the solar cell. The accumulated charge leads to the performance deterioration of the module, namely, PID of the module. We conducted a study to accurately predict the output reduction of the module operating in various installation conditions coming from the PID phenomenon. We investigated the leakage current flowing through front glass laminated with encapsulation material simultaneously exposed to various performance conditions of the PV system, namely, relative humidity, temperature, and applied voltage, which have an important effect on the PID of the module. The degradation of the module coming from PID was calculated on the basis of the obtained leakage current. To confirm the calculated data, modules with one solar cell were manufactured and the power loss results of the modules' exposure to various PID generation experiments were compared with the expected results. The results showed that we could predict the degradation of the modules by PID within a 2% tolerance under the PV system installation conditions.

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