Solar energy converted and fed to the utility grid by photovoltaic modules has increased significantly over the last few years. This trend is expected to continue. Photovoltaics (PV) energy forecasts are thus becoming more and more important. In this paper, the PV energy forecasts are used for a predictive energy management system (PEMS) in a positive energy building. The publication focuses on the development and comparison of different models for daily PV energy prediction taking into account complex shading, caused for example by trees. Three different forecast methods are compared. These are a physical model with local shading measurements, a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP), and a combination of the physical model and the neural network. The results show that the combination of the physical model and the neural network provides the most accurate forecast values and can improve adaptability. From April to December, the mean percentage error (MPE) of the MLP with physical information is 11.6%. From December to March, the accuracy of the PV predictions decreases to an MPE of 78.8%. This is caused by poorer irradiation forecasts, but mainly by snow coverage of the PV modules.
Photovoltaics Energy Prediction Under Complex Conditions for a Predictive Energy Management System
Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received April 15, 2014; final manuscript received November 24, 2014; published online January 27, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Santiago Silvestre.
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Schmelas, M., Feldmann, T., da Costa Fernandes, J., and Bollin, E. (June 1, 2015). "Photovoltaics Energy Prediction Under Complex Conditions for a Predictive Energy Management System." ASME. J. Sol. Energy Eng. June 2015; 137(3): 031015. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4029378
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