Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) is an integrated panel simultaneously producing combined heat and electricity. In order to examine the effect of the dimensional, operational, and environmental parameters, energetic and exergetic analyses of solar PV/T air collector systems are investigated. A theoretical model has been developed and the differential equations of energy are numerically solved. To confirm the reliability and accuracy of the present solution, first, comparison studies are performed with the available data in the literature, where good agreement between the obtained values and those existing in the literature was achieved. Then by using the validated model, the effects of the presence of glass cover, packing factor, channel depth, mass flow rate, solar irradiance, collector length, and the fin’s parameters on the performance of the systems have been studied. The results show that exergy analysis is necessary for making better design decisions.

References

References
1.
Kern
,
E. C. J.
, and
Russell
,
M. C.
, eds.,
1978
,
Combined Photovoltaic and Thermal Hybrid Collector Systems
, IEEE 13th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference,
Washington, DC
, pp.
1153
1157
.
2.
Florschuetz
,
L.
,
1979
, “
Extension of the Hottel–Whillier Model to the Analysis of Combined Photovoltaic/Thermal Flat Plate Collectors
,”
Sol. Energy
,
22
(
4
), pp.
361
366
.10.1016/0038-092X(79)90190-7
3.
Takashima
,
T.
,
Tanaka
,
T.
,
Doi
,
T.
,
Kamoshida
,
J.
,
Tani
,
T.
, and
Horigome
,
T.
,
1994
, “
New Proposal for Photovoltaic-Thermal Solar Energy Utilization Method
,”
Sol. Energy
,
52
(
3
), pp.
241
245
.10.1016/0038-092X(94)90490-1
4.
Lalović
,
B.
,
Kiss
,
Z.
, and
Weakliem
,
H.
,
1986
, “
A Hybrid Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic and Thermal Solar Collector
,”
Sol. Cells
,
19
(
2
), pp.
131
138
.10.1016/0379-6787(86)90038-4
5.
Prakash
,
J.
,
1994
, “
Transient Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal Solar Collector for Co-Generation of Electricity and Hot Air/Water
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
35
(
11
), pp.
967
972
.10.1016/0196-8904(94)90027-2
6.
Moshfegh
,
B.
, and
Sandberg
,
M.
,
1996
, “
Investigation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Vertical Channel Heated From One Side by Pv Elements, Part I—Numerical Study
,”
Renewable Energy
,
8
(
1–4
), pp.
248
253
.10.1016/0960-1481(96)88856-2
7.
Sandberg
,
M.
, and
Moshfegh
,
B.
,
1996
, “
Investigation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Vertical Channel Heated From One Side by PV Elements, Part II—Experimental Study
,”
Renewable Energy
,
8
(
1–4
), pp.
254
258
.10.1016/0960-1481(96)88857-4
8.
Brinkworth
,
B. J.
,
Marshall
,
R. H.
, and
Ibarahim
,
Z.
,
2000
, “
A Validated Model of Naturally Ventilated PV Cladding
,”
Sol. Energy
,
69
(
1
), pp.
67
81
.10.1016/S0038-092X(99)00076-6
9.
Tonui
,
J. K.
, and
Tripanagnostopoulos
,
Y.
,
2007
, “
Air-Cooled PV/T Solar Collectors With Low Cost Performance Improvements
,”
Sol. Energy
,
81
(
4
), pp.
498
511
.10.1016/j.solener.2006.08.002
10.
Tonui
,
J. K.
, and
Tripanagnostopoulos
,
Y.
,
2008
, “
Performance Improvement of PV/T Solar Collectors With Natural Air Flow Operation
,”
Sol. Energy
,
82
(
1
), pp.
1
12
.10.1016/j.solener.2007.06.004
11.
Ameri
,
M.
,
Mahmoudabadi
,
M. M.
, and
Shahsavar
,
A.
,
2012
, “
An Experimental Study on a Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Air Collector With Direct Coupling of Fans and Panels
,”
Energy Sources, Part A
,
34
(
10
), pp.
929
947
.10.1080/15567031003735238
12.
Shahsavar
,
A.
, and
Ameri
,
M.
,
2010
, “
Experimental Investigation and Modeling of a Direct-Coupled PV/T Air Collector
,”
Sol. Energy
,
84
(
11
), pp.
1938
1958
.10.1016/j.solener.2010.07.010
13.
Shahsavar
,
A.
,
Salmanzadeh
,
M.
,
Ameri
,
M.
, and
Talebizadeh
,
P.
,
2011
, “
Energy Saving in Buildings by Using the Exhaust and Ventilation Air for Cooling of Photovoltaic Panels
,”
Energy Buildings
,
43
(
9
), pp.
2219
2226
.10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.05.003
14.
Fujisawa
,
T.
, and
Tani
,
T.
,
1997
, “
Annual Exergy Evaluation on Photovoltaic-Thermal Hybrid Collector
,”
Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells,
47
(
1–4
), pp.
135
148
.10.1016/S0927-0248(97)00034-2
15.
Joshi
,
A. S.
, and
Tiwari
,
A.
,
2007
, “
Energy and Exergy Efficiencies of a Hybrid Photovoltaic–Thermal (PV/T) Air Collector
,”
Renewable Energy
,
32
(
13
), pp.
2223
2241
.10.1016/j.renene.2006.11.013
16.
Radziemska
,
E.
,
2009
, “
Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal Integrated System
,”
Int. J. Photoenergy
,
2009
, pp.
1
6
.10.1155/2009/732093
17.
Shahsavar
,
A.
,
Ameri
,
M.
, and
Gholampour
,
M.
,
2012
, “
Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal Collector With Natural Air Flow
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
134
(
1
), p.
011014
.10.1115/1.4005250
18.
Gholampour
,
M.
, and
Ameri
,
M.
,
2014
, “
Energy and Exergy Study of Effective Parameters on Performance of Photovoltaic/Thermal Natural Air Collectors
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
136
(
3
), p.
031001
.10.1115/1.4026250
19.
Ji
,
J.
,
Han
,
J.
,
Chow
,
T.-T.
,
Yi
,
H.
,
Lu
,
J.
,
He
,
W.
, and
Sun
,
W.
,
2006
, “
Effect of Fluid Flow and Packing Factor on Energy Performance of a Wall-Mounted Hybrid Photovoltaic/Water-Heating Collector System
,”
Energy Buildings
,
38
(
12
), pp.
1380
1387
.10.1016/j.enbuild.2006.02.010
20.
Chow
,
T. T.
,
Pei
,
G.
,
Fong
,
K. F.
,
Lin
,
Z.
,
Chan
,
A. L. S.
, and
Ji
,
J.
,
2009
, “
Energy and Exergy Analysis of Photovoltaic–Thermal Collector With and Without Glass Cover
,”
Appl. Energy
,
86
(
3
), pp.
310
316
.10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.04.016
21.
Incropera
,
F. P.
, and
De Witt
,
D. P.
,
1985
,
Transfer
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
22.
Klein
,
S.
,
1975
, “
Calculation of Flat-Plate Collector Loss Coefficients
,”
Sol. Energy
,
17
(
1
), pp.
79
80
.10.1016/0038-092X(75)90020-1
23.
Hottel
,
H.
, and
Woertz
,
B.
,
1942
, “
Performance of Flat-Plate Solar-Heat Collectors
,”
Trans. ASME
64
, pp.
91
104
.
24.
Duffie
,
J. A.
, and
Beckman
,
W. A.
,
1991
,
Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
25.
Hollands
,
K. G. T.
,
Unny
,
T. E.
,
Raithby
,
G. D.
, and
Konicek
,
L.
,
1976
, “
Free Convective Heat Transfer Across Inclined Air Layers
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
98
(
2
), pp.
189
193
.10.1115/1.3450517
26.
Tan
,
H. M.
, and
Charters
,
W. W. S.
,
1969
, “
Effect of Thermal Entrance Region on Turbulent Forced-Convective Heat Transfer for an Asymmetrically Heated Rectangular Duct With Uniform Heat Flux
,”
Sol. Energy
,
12
(
4
), pp.
513
516
.10.1016/0038-092X(69)90072-3
27.
Bergene
,
T.
, and
Løvvik
,
O. M.
,
1995
, “
Model Calculations on a Flat-Plate Solar Heat Collector With Integrated Solar Cells
,”
Sol. Energy
,
55
(
6
), pp.
453
462
.10.1016/0038-092X(95)00072-Y
28.
Garg
,
H.
, and
Adhikari
,
R.
,
1997
, “
Conventional Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Air Heating Collectors: Steady-State Simulation
,”
Renewable Energy
,
11
(
3
), pp.
363
385
.10.1016/S0960-1481(97)00007-4
29.
Cengel
,
Y.
, and
Boles
,
M.
,
1989
,
Thermodynamics—An Engineering Approach
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
30.
Tiwari
,
A.
,
Sodha
,
M.
,
Chandra
,
A.
, and
Joshi
,
J.
,
2006
, “
Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Thermal Solar Air Collector for Composite Climate of India
,”
Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells
,
90
(
2
), pp.
175
189
.10.1016/j.solmat.2005.03.002
31.
Petela
,
R.
,
1964
, “
Exergy of Heat Radiation
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
86
(
2
), pp.
187
192
.10.1115/1.3687092
32.
Spanner
,
D. C.
,
1964
,
Introduction to Thermodynamics
,
Academic Press
,
London
.
33.
Jeter
,
S. M.
,
1981
, “
Maximum Conversion Efficiency for the Utilization of Direct Solar Radiation
,”
Sol. Energy
,
26
(
3
), pp.
231
236
.10.1016/0038-092X(81)90207-3
34.
Bejan
,
A.
,
Tsatsaronis
,
G.
, and
Moran
,
M.
,
1996
,
Thermal Design and Optimization
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
You do not currently have access to this content.